USMLEStep1RecallBuzzwordsForTheBoards2004Reinheimer
наименование:USMLE Step 1 Recall Buzzwords for the Boards
автор/ы : Reinheimer Brent A.
год : 2004
страниц : 464
издательство : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
ISBN: 0781745136

печатное издание


Reinheimer is a physician with the St. Barnabas Health Care System in Toms River, New Jersey. The first (1999) edition of this study guide evolved from study notes Reinheimer developed and used in his own preparation for taking the USMLE Step I exam. The text has been thoroughly updated and reorganized into seven chapters, now arranged in a logical sequence-anatomy, behavioral sciences, biochemistry, microbiology and immunology, physiology, pharmacology, pathology-followed by a new "Power Review" of helpful hints on preparing for the medical boards.




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Preface v
Common Abbreviations xi
1 Anatomic Sciences I
2 Behavioral Sciences 76
3 Biochemistry 126
4 Microbiology and Immunology 163
5 Physiology 210
6 Pharmacology 273
7 Pathology 310
8 Power Review 387
Appendix: Formulas and Equations 413
Bibliography 418
Index 419

A gene, 152
A wave, 212, 254
Abdominal aorta
aneurysm, 403
atherosclerotie plaques, 403
Abdominal artery, 21
Abdominal musele
external oblique, 2
internal oblique, 12
transverse, 8
Abl oncogene, 385
Abseess
brain, 325
liver, 398
lung, 391
Absolute refractory period, 225
AbsOlption rate, 292
Abuse
child, reporting, 102
drug, 405
elder, 404
sexual, 95, 108, 404
spousal, 88
Academic- achievement, 107
Aeamprosate, 86
Acanthosis nigrieans, 326
Acarbose, 287
Accessory cuneate nueleus, 58
Accessory nucleus, 37
Accommodation, 41
Accuracy, 120
Acebuto1oL 278
Acetabulum, bones, 4
Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, 274
Aeetaminophen, 284, 411
Acetazolamide, 276, 282
Acetyl coenzyme A, 126, 127, 139
Acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase, 130, 154
Acetylcholine (ACh), 124, 255
effects on ventricular pacemaker cell
221
in Parkinson's disease, 309
synthesis, 235
Acetylcholine (ACh) receptors. 274
Aeetylcholinesterase,229
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. antidote,
411
Achalasia. 269. 327
Aehondroplasia, 386
Acid-base balance, abnormal. See Acidosis;
Alkalosis
Acid-base rules, 416-417
Addie, 131
Aeidophils, 230
Acidosis. See also Ketoacidosis
hypokalemic, 258
metaboliC', 230, 256
mixed, 213
renal compensation mechanisms, 229
respiratory, 265
respiratory compensation meehanisms,
256
Acini cells, 73
Acne vulgaris, 394
Acquired immunodefieiency syndrome
(AIDS). See Human immunode-
fieiency virus (HIV) infuetion
Aeromegaly, 264
ACTH (adrenocorticotropie hormone),
226,243
Acting out, 106
Actinomyces israelii, 187
Action potential, 74, 230, 241
ventricular
aeetylcholine effects, 221
norepinephrine effeds, 210
phase 0 trigger, 235
phase 3 trigger. 229
Action potential-Continued
ventricular
phase 4 trigger, 246
phases, 252
Aeute tubular necrosis, 392
Addison's disease, 240, 250
Adenine, 155
Adenoma
chief ceU, 341
GH-produdng, 348
hepatie, 324
pituitary, 399
thyroid, 399
Adenomatous polyposis eoli gene, 408
Adenosine, 300
Adenosine deaminase defideney, 148, 195,
366
S-Adenosylmethionine, 151
Adenovirus, 180
Adipose tissue, 140
Adjustment disorder, 114-115
Adrenal androgen production, 210
Adrenal cortex, hormones. 231
Adrenal hypeIplasia, 226
Adrenal meduUa, 16
Adrenarche, 216
Adrenergie agonists, beta 2 , 274
Adrenergic receptors, alpha I , 294
Adult familial polyposis, 406
Adult polycystic kidney disease, 330, 380
Adult T-eellieukemia, 349
Advance directives, 102
Aedes mosquito, 169, 173
Affect, isolation of, 106
Affeetive disorder, seasonal, 115
Afferent pupillary defeet, 1
Affinity, 145, 192, 194
African sleeping sickness, 178
Afterload,255, 263
velodty and, 248
Aganglionic megacolon, 28, 366
Agglutination test, 198
Agoraphobia, SO
AIDS. See Human immunodeficiency virus
(HlV) infection
Air, room, oxygen content, 266
AilWay resistanee, 256
Akathisia, 115
Alanine, 145, 149
AI-Anon, 77
Albendazole, 289
Albers-Schonberg disease, 322
Albinism, 151,327,407
Albumin, 128, 140
Albuterol, 282
Alcohol intoxication, sleep and, 102
Alcoholics Anonymous, 92
Alcoholism, and suidde, 101
Aldehyde dehydrogenase, 84, 135
Aldolase B defidency, 147
Aldosterone,219,231,239,414
defidency, 240
excess, 210, 239, 334
secretion, disorders, 239-240
Aldosterone antagonists, site of action, 286
Alendronate, 277
Alkaline phosphatase, 268
Alkalosis
hypokalemie, 219, 242
metabolic, 223, 244
renal compensation mechanisms, 220, 244
respiratory, 216
Alkaptonuria, 334
Alkylating agents. 289
cancer associated with, 327
Allelie exclusion, 190
Allograft, 202
Allopurinol, 143, 292
Allotypes, 198
Alpha error, 120
Alpha waves, 104
Alpha I-adrenergic receptors, 294
Aiphal-bloekers, pharmacologic effects,
124
Alpha-blockers, 304
Alpha-fetoprotein, 320
Alteplase, 292
Alternative hypothesis, 96
Altruism, 110
Aluminum-containing antadds, 2S2
Alveolar dead space, 258
Alveolar macrophages, 70, 195, 378
Alveolar membrane, carbon dioxide driving
force across, 248
Alveolar ventilation, 250
Alveoli, 72
cell types, 69-70
gas exchange, 69
Alzheimer's disease, 112
dementia, 80, 112
microscopic pathologie changes, 81
Amanita phalloides, 352
Amantadine, 273, 294
Amiloride, 286, 291
Amino acid chain, folding, 160
Amino adds, titration plateaus, 134
Amino group, 131
Aminoaeyl-tRNA synthetase, 128-129
Aminoglyeosides, 276, 278, 294
Aminolevulinie acid (ALA) dehydrogenase,
137
8-Aminolevulinie add (ALA) synthase, 146
AminophyUine, 300
Ammonium (NH4+), 224
Amnesia, 120
Amoxieillin, 307
Amphetamine, 298
Amphoteridn B, 279
AmpiciHin, 307
Ampulla, 17
Amygdala, 55
Amylase, 215, 256
Amyloid, eomponents, 335, 351
Amyloidosis, 401, 405
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, 54
Anabolic steroids, 237
Anaphylactic hypersensitivity reaction, 346
Anaphylatoxins, complement fr-dgments, 197
Anaphylaxis, eomplement factors in, 202
Anatomieal dead spaee, 211, 256
Androgen-binding protein, 262
Androgens, 244
adrenal production, 210
index for, 248
Anemia
autoimmune hemolytic. 208. 330
of chronie disease, 367
hypochromic mierocytic, 318, 367
iron defideney, 367
megaloblastic, 178, 342, 353
normoehromic normocytic, 328
oxygen content in, 235
pernieious, 196, 348
sickle eell, 362, 369
sideroblastic, 356, 367
Anesthetics
inhaled, 278
local, 274
blockade, 28]
Aneurysm
aortic
abdominal, 403
dissecting, 341
berry, 23, 372
cerebral, 46
Angelman syndrome, 332
Angina, forms, 316
Angiosareoma, liver, 328, 364
Angiotensin II, 234, 259
Angiotensin-eonverting enzyme (ACE) in-
hibitors, 283, 294
Angular gyrus lesion, 43
Anhedonia, 83
Anhidrosis, in Homer's syndrome, 38
Ankylosing spondylitis, 320
Anopheles mosquito. 164, 274
Anorexia nervosa, 92
Anorgasmia. 93
AN OVA
one-way. 95
two-way, 112
Anovulation, 392
Antacids, aluminum-containing, 282
Antagonism, physiologie, 308
Anterior crudate ligament, 24
Anterior hypothalamie zone, 41
Antenor limb of internal capsule, 58
Anterior nuclear limbic- system, 43
Anterior pituitary gland, hormones, 243
Anterior spinal artery, 46
Anterior tibial artery, 13
Anterior tongue
general sensation, 14
taste sensation, 5
Antiarrhythmies
class I, 290
class II. 303
class III, 280
class IV, 308
Antibody(ies). See also Immunoglobulin(s)
antieentromere,347
antigen-binding, 195,200,201
cleavage with papain, 192
cleavage with pepsin, 199
tests, 190
Anticentromere antibodies, 347
Anticholinergic agents, antidote, 411
Anticholinergie side effects, 96
Anticipation, 110, 147
Antidepressants, tricyclie, overdose, 307
Antidiuretie hormone (ADH), 49, 70, 270,
414
secretion, 245, 263
synthesis, 238
Antidotes, 410-412
Antigen(s)
antibody binding, 195, 200, 201
B-eell reeognition, 207
processed, 203, 207
T-eell recognition, 203
thymus-independent, 195
unproeessed,199,207
Antigenie determinant, 193, 201
Antigenieity, 205
Antigen-presenting cells, 192
Antimicrobial agents
for immunocompromised population,
280
side effects, 276
Antineoplastic agents. 275
cell cycle phases, 289
log-kill hypothesis, 299
Antisocial personality disorder, 89, 91
Antistreptolysin 0 (ASO) titers, 360
Anton's syndrome, 119
Anxietv
separation, 82
stranger, 91
Anxiety defense mechanIsms, 105-106
Anxiety disorder, generalized, 95
Aorta, 237, 260
abdominal, atherosclerotie plaques, 403
eoarctation
postductal, 311
preductal (infantile), 322
velocity, 233
Aortic aneurysm
abdominal, 403
disseeting,341
Aortic arches, 3, 16
structures derived from, 2
vertebral levels, 10
Aortic insufficiency, 262
Aortic stenosis, 262
Aortic valve
closure, 233
opening, 239
Aorticorenal ganglia, 59
Ape hand, 21
APGAR test, 9]
Aphasia
expressive, 48
reeeptive, 54
types, 103-104
Apneustie center, 216
Apocrine glands, 64
Aponeurosis B-48, 128
Aponeurotic fibers, 4
Apoprotein A-I, 137
Apoptosis, 365
Apraxia. transcortieal, 44
Arachidonic acid, products, 337
Arachnoid granulations, function, 21
Arboviruses, 177
Ar
nine, 132-133, 144,151, 159
Arginine vasopressin. See Antidiuretie hor-
mone (ADH)
Argyll Robertson pupils, 13,47
Arnold-Chiari malformation type 2, 324,
368
Aromatase, 256
Aromatic amines, eaneer associated with.
327
Arrested development, 105
Arsenie
antidote, 411
eancer associated with, 328
poisoning, 357
Arterial diastolic pressure, deereased, 214
Arterial stretch receptors, 234
Arterial systolic pressure, inereased, 22]
Arterioles, 220
eonsmction, 250, 268
dilation, 250
parasympathetic effeets on, 233
renal, 251
Arteriovenous difference, 230, 270
Arteritis
giant eell, 367
Takayasu, 362
temporal, 367
Arthritis
infectious, 402
inflammatory, 402
most common form. 402
rheumatoid, 376
Arthroconidia, with hyphae, 177
Asbestos, eaneer associated with, 328, 401
Asbestosis. 338. 386
Aschoff bodies of rheumatic fever, 341, 387
Aseorbie acid defieiency, 141, 147,409
Asparagine, 135
Aspartame, 156
Aspartate, 137,258
Aspartate transearbamylase, 148
Aspartie acid, 126
Babesiosis, 184
Bact1lus anthracis, 169, ] 81
Bacillus cereus, 184
Bacitracin, 300
Backward masking, 114
Bacteria. 173
eneapsulated, 188
pigmentation related to, 179
Bacterial diarrhea, infantile, 393
Baeterial endocarditis, 312, 376
acute, 390
subacute, 390
Baeterial meningitis, CSF abnormalities,
325
Bactericidal therapy, 280, 286
Bainbridge reflex, 266-267
Barbiturates
effects on sleep, 76
overdose, 273
Barrett esophagus, 333
Basal ganglia
direct versus indirect pathways, 54, 56
disease, 48-49
funetions, 50, 54, 111
Basement membrane, components, 67
Basic, 131
Basilar artery. 54
Basophilie stippling, 343
B-cell area, of lymph node, 206
Bcl-2 gene, 350
Bell pad, 90
Bence-Jones proteinuria, 387
Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test, 81
Bends, 249, 338
Benserazide, 295, 296
Benzenes, eaneer associated with, 328
Benzodiazepines, 100, 113, 278
antidote, 411
withdrawal reactions, 273
Benzylpenieillin, 290
Berger disease, 332, 363
Bernard-Soulier syndrome, 380
Berry aneurysm, 23, 372
Berylliosis, 337
B cell(s), 67, 192,353 Beryllium, 370
antigens recognized by, 207 "Best interest standard," 93
CD markers, 198 Beta bloekers, 303, 305
class switching, 202 contraindications, 299
mature, 192, 199 pharmacologie effects, 124
memory, 199 Beta error, 114
B cell antigen receptors, 196 Beta2-adrener
e agonists, 274
Aspirin, 290, 306, 379
Asthma, 307, 363
Astrocytes, 57
Astrocytoma, 360
Ataxia-telangieetasia, 201
Atelectasis, 368
Atherosclerosis, risk factors, 334
Atherosclerotic plaque, in abdommal aorta,
403
Athetosis, 57
ATP/ADP translocase, 159
Atracurium, 300
Atrial natriuretic peptide, 258
Atrial septal defeet, 396
Atrioventricular node, 210, 255
Atrium, primitive, 30
Atrophy, 338
Atropine, 294, 411
Attention-deficitlhyperaetivity disorder
(ADHD),81
Attributable risk, 107
Auditory eortex, primary, 47
Auerrods, 373, 388
Auspitz sign, 362
Autism, 83, 102
Autograft, 202
Autoimmune hemolytie anemia. 208. 330
Autoimmune thrombocytopenia purpura,
208
Autoregulation, 254
Autosomal dominant transmission, 153
Autosomal recessive transmission, 126-127
Avascular neerosis, bone, 344
Aversive conditioning, 99
Avidity, 192,206
Avoidant personality disorder, 87
Axillary artery, 9
Axillary branch, posterior brachial plexus, 3
Ason hilloek, 241
Axons, 63
Azathioprine, 281
Azithromycin, 304
Azo dyes, eaneer associated with, 327
Beta-oxidation, 135
Bias
confounding, 76
lead-time, 108
measurement, 117
recall, 99
seleetion, 93
Bicarbonate (HCO T ), 214. 224
Bicuspid valve, 16
Bile, 69
eoncentration, 252
reabsOlption, 264. 267
Bil" acid sequestrants, 304
Biliary atre,ia, extrahepatic, 30
Biliary eirrhosis, primary, 317
Bilirubin, unconjugated, 128, 132, 145
Bioavailability, 284, 296
Biofeedbaek, 116
Biofeedback model of operant eondition-
ing,92
Biotin, 152, 409
Biotransformation, 278
Bipolar disorder, ] 02
nonpsychotic, 90
norepinephrine in, 99
rapid cycling, 109
Birbeck granules, 348. 388
D-2,3- Bisphosphoglycerate, 130
Bisphosphonates. 281
Bitemporal heteron
1'nous hemianopsia, 50
Black males, cause of death, 394
Blaek-gray pigmentation, bacteria associ-
ated with, 179
Bladder carcinoma, lS3, 32S
Bladder tumor, 397
Blastoeonidia, 172
Blastocyst, 403
Blastomyces dermutitidis, 164
Bleeding. See also Hemorrhage
rectal, 392
Bleomycin, 289
Blind spot, 14
Blindness, 389
Blink reflex, 6
Bloeking, 78
Blood dot, 348
Blood flow, 414
cerebral, 254
coronary artery, 213
pulmonary, 211
renal, 230, 265
systemic, 211
turbulent, 230-231
Blood pressure, 2]2
elevated. See Hypertension
during exercise, 234
norepinephrine and, 226
Blood velocity, 414
Blood vessels
eross-sectional area, velocity and, 239
formation, 32
Blood volume, 27]
Blood-brain barrier. 45. 57. 70. 132
Bloody tap, 389
Blotting teehniques, 139
Blue sdera, 313, 388
Blue-domed cyst, 388
Blue-green pigmentation, bacteria assoei-
ated with, 179
Body compartment rules, 413-414
Body dysmorphie disorder, 94
Bone
avaseular neerosis, 344
deposition, 224
inereased formation, 322
metastasis to, 402
most eommon disorder, 402
resorption, 224
tumor, 374, 399, 401
BORA mnemonie, 182
Borderline personality disorder, 89
Bordetella pertussis, 171
BorreUaburgdorferi,320
BorreUa reeurrentis, 167
Bouehard nodes, 329
Boutonniere deformities, 368
Bowman's capsule, hydrostatic pressure in,
212
Braehial artery, 9
eompression, 22
Brachial plexus
branches, 20
lateral cord branches, 11
median cord branches, 22
posterior cord branches, 3
Brachiocephalie artery, right, 3
Brachiocephalie trunk, 16
Brain. See also Cerebral entries
abscess, 325
metastasis to, 402
most common neurotransmitter, 402
Brain-blood barrier, 45
Caisson disease, 249, 338
Calcarine cortex lesion, right, 50
Calcarine su1eus, 5]
Caleification
dystrophic, 357
metastatic, 339, 345
Caleitonin, 68,148,320
Caleitriol, renal effects, 227
Caleium
defieiency, 152, 236
exeess, 247
free ionized, 237
massive influx, 356
storage, 231
Caleium channel(s), voltage-gated, 257
Calcium channel blockers, 288, 308
Calf pseudohypertrophy, 387
Calicivirus, 168, L 7 4
California encephalitis, 176
Call-Exner bodies, 329, 388
Camper's faseia, 14
Campylobacter jf!iuni, 176
Cancer. See also Careinoma; Tumor(s};
specific sites
chemical agents assoeiated with,
327-328
mortality, 394
most common, 404
tumor markers, 319--320
Candida, 336
Candida albicans, 163, 188
Candida infection, of oral mucosa, 187
Capillary(ies),245
glomerular, 266
velocity, 233
Capil1ary hydrostatic pressure, 236
Caplan syndrome, 357
Carbamazepine, 275, 280, 308
Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase, 143,145
Carbidopa, 295, 296
Carbohydrates
digestion, 272
metabolism, 157
Carbon dioxide
driving force across alveolar membrane,
C eells, 68 248
C wave, 212, 254 partial pressure
CA-19.9, 320 alveolar, 225, 237
CA-125, 320 ventilation and, 23]
Cafe-au-lait spots, 345, 389 as perfusion-limited gas, 257
CAGE questions, 109 in plasma, 214
Brainstem, sensory neuron eell bodies, 40
Breast
benign tumor, 400
fibrocystic disease, 368-369
most common benign lesion, 400
Paget disease, 339
Breast cancer, 320, 370, 400
most common histologie variant, 400
most common quadrant, 405
risk factors, 383
Breast lump, 392
Bretylium, 291
Brief psychotie disorder, 108
Broca's aphasia, 103
Broca's area, 47
Brodman areas, 47-48
Bronchiectasis, 355
Bronehioles, terminal, 227
Bronchiolitis, in ehildren, 39]
Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma, 329
Bronehitis, chronic, 383
Bronehoconstriction, 23, 248
Bronchodilation, 23, 248
Bronchogenic carcinoma, 328
Bronchopulmonary segments, 12
Brother Fox case, 93
Brown-Saequard syndrome, 53
Brucella, 169, 170, 188
Brunner's glands, 62
Brushfield spots, 323
Bruton X-linked hypogammaglobinemia,
205
Bruxism, 109
Budd-Chiari syndrome, 315
Buerger disease, 354-355
Buffers, 154
Bulbus cordis, 30
Bulla, 348
Bunyavirus, 176
Burkittlyrnphoma, 379,406
Burr cells, 319
Bursa
infrapatellar, 23
prepatellar, 14
Carbon monoxide
diffusion, 256
poisoning, 367, 412
antidote, 410
hemoglohin-oxygen dissociation curve,
247
Carbonie anhydrase, 233
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, 276, 289
Carboxyl group, 131
Carcinoembryonie antigen (CEA), 320
Carcinoid heart disease, 323
Carcinoid syndrome, 330
Carcinoid tumor, 317, 398
Carcinoma. See also Cancer; Tumor(s);
specific sites
EBV infection and, 175, 179
oat cell, 320
small cell, 320
squamous cell, 328
HPV infection and, 322
lung, 344
skin, 341, 355
Cardiac anomaly
eongenital. 396
in Turner syndrome, 397
Cardiae cyele. 236
isovolumetrie contraction, 236, 244, 249
isovolumetric relaxation, 225, 233
Cardiac death, sudden, 334, 390
Cardiac muscle, 62
histologieal features, 261
regeneration, 360
Cardiac output, 212, 227, 254
Cardiac shunts
left-to-right, 336
right -to-left, 349
Cardiac tumor, 397, 405
Cardiac veins, arteries traveling with, 10
Cardiology, equations and formulas,
414-415
Cardiomyopathy
hypertrophic, 377
restrictive, 390
Carnitine acyl CoA transferase 11, 144
Carnitine acyltransferase I, 153. 154
Carotid body, 10, 232, 238
Carotid body reflex, 21
Carotid mnal, 18
Carotid sinus, 10, 259
Carotid sinus reflex, 246
Carpal bone, fracturefdislomtion, 405
Caipal tunnel syndrome, 16
Carteolol, 285
Case fatality rate, 108
Case-eontrol studies, 85, 107
Caseous necrosis, 371
Catalase, 143, 171
Catatonic schizophrenia, 101, 124
Catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT),
271
Cauda equina, I
Caudate liver lobe, 4
Cause-speeific mortality rate, 108
CD markers
B-cell, 198
T-celL 191
CIJ3, 191, 195,203
CD4, 191
CD4+ T-eells (helper), 201, 203, 204, 207,
209
CD8, 191
CD8+ T cells (cytotoxie), 193. 209
CD14,204
CDl5, 376
CD16,195
CDI9, 198, 206
CD21, 198
CD28, 191
CIJ30, 376
CIJ40, 191, 193, 198
CD56. 195
CDK4 oncogene, 385
Cefaclor. 279
Cefamandole, 287, 292, 303
Cefoperazone,287,292,303
Cefotetan, 281
Cefoxitin, 281
Ceftizoxime, 21H
Ceftriaxone, 303
Cefuroxime, 279
Celecoxib, 297
Celiac ganglia, 59
Celiac sprue, 340
Celiac trunk, branches, 13
Cell death, programmed, 365
Cell diameter, and conduction velocity,
272
Cell membrane. See Membrane
Cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction,
195,346
Cellular immunity, 190,347
Cellular injury, 391
Central nervous system neurons, regenera-
tion,359
Central nervous s}"Stem tumor, 402
Central sulcus, 47
Central vein ofJiver lobule, 66
Ceramide, 142
Cerebellar cortex, neuron types, 37
Cerebellar homuneulus map, 48
Cerebellar nuclei, 37
Cerebellar peduncles, 38
Cerebellum
functions, 50, 111
granule cells, 105
lesion
nystagmus and, 55
unilateral, 60
Cerebral aneurysm, 46
Cerehral aqueduct, 12
Cerebral blood flow, 254
Cerebral cortex
functional areas, 111-112
functional lesions, 119-120
right, lesion, 56
vermis lesion, 38
Cerebral infarction, 402
hemorrhagie, 377
Cerebrospinal fluid, 53
abnormalities, conditions assoeiated
with, 325
normal values, 325
pH of, 61
Cervical mncer
HPV serotypes, 379
risk factors, 357
Cervical plexus, 14
Cervical vertebrae
first, 10
spinal nerves associated with, 44
Cestodes, 185
Chagas disease, 172, 187
Chanere, 393
Charcot-Leyden crystals, 387
Chediak-Higashi syndrome, 313
Cheilosis, 142
Chemical agents, mncer assoeiated with,
327-328
Chemotactic agents, 201, 205-206
Chemotaxis, 201, 202, 354
Cherry red intoxication, 367, 412
Cherry red spots, retina, 376
Chief cell(s), 67, 68, 236
Chief cell adenoma, 34]
Childbirth, psychiatrie illness after, 114
Children. See also Infant; Neonate
abuse, reporting, 102
bronchiolitis, 391
cardiac anomaly, 396
muse of death, 394
chronic granulomatous disease, 310
eommitment, 115
diarrhea, 392
eye tumor, 401
figure drawing, 90-9]
heart disease, 390
nephritic syndrome, 392
polycystie kidney disease, 312
pulmonary hypertension, 39]
solid tumor, 397
understanding of death, 100
withholding of treatment, 96
Chimney sweeps, scrotal eancer, 348
Chi-square, 107, 121
Chlnmydia trachom.atis conjunctivitis, 175
Chloral hydrate, 288
Chloramphenicol, 276, 295
Chlortetracycline, 292
Cholangitis, primary sclerosing, 330
Cholecalciferol, 210, 227
Cholecystitis, 380, 398
Cholecystokinin (CCK), 61, 241
Cholera toxin, 138, 251
Cholesterol. See alsu Hypercholesterolemia
gallstones, 332
synthesis, 148, 154
Cholesterolosis, 364
Cholestyramine, 304
Chondroblasts, 220
Chondroitin sulfate, 74
Chorda tympani nerve, 5
Chordae tendineae, 22
Choriocarcinoma, 27, 319
Chorion, 35
Chromaffin cells, 75
Chromium (Cr), 328, 408
Chromomycosis, 186
Chromosomal disorder(s)
eonditions assoeiated with, 407
most eommon, 406
Chromosomal translocations, 406-407
Chromosome 5, 156
Chromosome 6, 200, 207
Chromosome 15, 83, 332
Churg-Strauss syndrome, 382
Chylomierons, 146
Cigarette smoking, 339, 342
Cilia, 63
Ciliary ganglion, 7, 52, 58
Ciliary muscles, 5
Cimetidine, 306
Circle of Willis, berry aneurysm, 23, 372
Circulation. See Blood flow
Cireumvallate papillae, 69
Cirrhosis, 324, 391
primary biliary, 317
Cisplatin, 289
Citrate, 128
Clarke's nucleus, 58, 59
Classical conditioning, 99, 105
Clearance, 222, 230,235,308
Cleft lip, 34
Cleft palate, 25
Clergyman's knee, 23
Climbing fibers, 41
Clindamycin, 308
Clinical testing, 125
phase 1, 301
phase 4, 307
Clofazimine, 285
Clonal selection rules, 194
Clonidine, 83, 303
Clonorchis sinensis, 351
Clopidogrel,291
Closed-ended questions, 84
Clostridium botulinum, 172, 183, 188
Clostridium perfringens, 163, 167, 175
Clostridium tetani, 186
Cloxaeillin, 283
(jozapine,100,284,298,306
C-myc oncogene, 385
Coagulation eascade, 346, 375
Coagulation factors, vitamin K-dependent,
133,340
Coagulation pathway, 349
Coagulative necrosis, 371
Coal worker's pneumoconiosis, 338
Coarctation of aorta
postductal, 311
preductal (infantile), 322
Cocffine, 279, 300,363
Cocei, gram-negative, 186
Coccidioides immitis, 184
Coccygeal vertebrae, spinal nerves assoeiated with, 44
Cochlea, 49
Codman triangle, 388
Codominant gene expression, exceptions,
156
Codons, 133
Cognitive development, 79
Cohort studies, 85, 107
Cold, common, 390
Cold water calorie test, 45
Colestipol, 304
Colic- flexure, 19
Colitis
psenclomembranous, 370
uleerative,345,352,358,365,398
Collagen
type I, 381
type III, 366
type IV, 63
Collagen fibril, 66
Colleeting ducts, 70
tenninal regions, 252
Colon cancer, 320
Colonic divertieulum, 398
Colonic gangliosus, 28, 366
Color perception, 49
Colostrum, 203
Commitment
of child, 115
of patient, 86
Common carotid artery, bifurcation, 9
Common peroneal nerve, 18, 19, 20
Common variable hypogammaglobinemia,
203
Communication, nonverbal. 108
Competency, 76, 118, 121
Competitive antagonist, 284
Complement 1, 191
Complement 1 inhibitor, 191,360
Complement 2, 191
Complement 3, 191
Complement 3a, 202
Complement 3b, 202
Complement 4, 191
Complement 4a, 202
Complement 5-9, '201,322
Complement 5a, 206
in anaphylaxis, 202
in chemotaxis, 201
Complement factors
assoeiations, 201-202
defieieneies, 191, 405
Complement fragments, anaphylactoid,
197
Complex 4, 151
Complex I, 158, 159
Complianee, 231, 245, 414
and pulse pressure, 269
Compulsions, 121
Concrete operations, 79
Conditioned response. 118
Conditioned stimulus, 118
Conditioning
aversive, 99
classical, 99,105
operant, 92, 98, 116
CONDM mnemonic, 283
Conduction aphasia, 103
Conduction veloeity, cell diameter and, 272
Condyloma acuminatum, HPV serotypes,
377
Cones, 49
Confabulation, 55
Confidence interval, 82
Confounding bias, 76
Congenital C'ardiac anomaly, 396
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia, 403
Congenital hypothyroidism, 318
Congenital rubella syndrome, 179
Congestive heart fffilure (CHF), 362
Conidia, 178
Conjugate eye movements, 38
Conjunctivitis, 175, 395
Conn syndrome, 239, 334
Constrictor pupillae muscles, 5
Continence, muscle of, 21
Contraceptives, oral, 292
Contractility, and systolic interval, 215
Conus medullaris, 55
Convergenee, 51
Conversion disorder, 94
Coombs test, 193
Copper, 410
antidote, 411
deficiency, 410
in tropocollagen alignment, 64
Coprophilia, 123
Copy DNA, 161
Cori cycle, 146
Corneal reflex, sensory component, 40
Coronary artery(ies), 213
left, 14
right. 20
Coronary ischemia, from cocffine, 279
COlpuS callosum lesion, 44
Corpus luteum, 71
granulose eells, 63
theca cells, 64
Corpus striatum, hypennyelination, 57
Correlation, 112
Pearson, 124
types, 83
Cortex
hyperactive, 56
underactive, 56
Corticospinal tract, 58, 59
lesion, 53
Corticosteroids, 302
Cortisol, 219, 231
abnonnalities, 250
and glucose uptake, 227
secretion,212,258
and sleep deprivation, 97
Corynebacterium diphtheriae, 178, 179
Cough reflex, 24
Councilman bodies, 388
Courvoisier's law, 33]
Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusions, 189,
388
COWS mnemonic, 45
Coxiella bumetii, 165,168
Coxsackie A, 169
C-peptide levels, 220
Cranial nerve{s)
arising from medulla, 44
arising from midbrain, 44
arising from pons, 44
blink reflex, 6
conjugate eye movements, 38
deficits, lesions associated with, 36-37
gag reflex, 9
light reflex, 6
in midline of brain stem, 5
phaI)'llgeal arch associations, 28
with preganglionic parasympathetie
fibers, 41
soft palate innervation, 13
to solitary nucleus, 35
taste sensation, 5, 10
Cranial nerve I, 5
Cranial nerve II, 5, 6
Cranial nerve III, 5, 6, 13,57,347
Cranial nerve IV, 59
Cranial nerve V, 18,22,37,59
Cranial nerve VI, 5, 6, 40
Cranial nerve VII, 5, 6, 18, 43
Cranial nerve IX, 9, 19, 21
Cranial nerve X, 5. 9. 10. 13, 19, 21, 22, 41,
52
Cranial nerve Xl, 10, 21
Cranial nerve XII, 9
CraniophaI)'11gioma, 58, 332
Creatinine
clearance, 223
serum, 271
CREST syndrome, 347
Creutzfeldt-Jakob's disease, 121, 339
Cribriform plate, 18
Cricothyroid muscle
function, 1
innervation, 11
Cri-du-chat syndrome, 156, 407
Crigler-Najjar syndrome, 157
Cristae, 72
Crohn disease, 333, 336. 398
Cromolyn, 282
Cross-bridge cycling, skeletal muscle, 228
Crossover study, 121
Cross-sectional area, veloeity and, 239
Crossoseetional studies, 85, 107
Croup, 390
Crude mortality rate, 108
Cryptococcus, 178, 180
Cryptococcus neoformans, 181, 183
Cryptorchidism, 28
CuneocerebeHar tract, 38, 58
Cupola, lung, 9
Curling uleer, 353
Curschmann spirals, 387
Cushing's disease, 327
Cushing's syndrome, 233, 327, 392
Cushing's ulcer, 358
Cutaneous T -ceH lymphoma, 369
Cyanide, 345. 411
Cyanocobalamin
absorption, 410
deficiency, 160, 161, 325, 342, 409
Cyanotic heart disease, 390
Cyclin D oncogene, 385
Cyclothymia, 90
Cyproheptadine, 285
Cyst(s)
blue-domed, 388
dennoid, 356
Cystadenocarcinoma, 340
Cysteine, bacteria requiring, 188
Cystic fibrosis, 331. 394, 407
Cysticerci, 189
Cysticereosis, 170
Cystitis, 393
Cytarabine, 289
Cytochrome a/a3, 159
Cytochrome bid, 158
Cytochrome C, 333
Cytochrome p450 system, 281, 331
Cytokine, 204
Cytomegalo
rus(C
V),166, 186,188
retinitis, 326
Cytosine, 146, 149
Cytotoxic hypersensiti
ty reaction, 193,
208,346
Cytotrophoblast, 70
Degeneration
dorsal column, bilateral, 52
subacute combined, 39, 356
Dehydroepianmosterone (DHEA), 231
5' Deiodinase, 305
Delta waves, 104
Deltoid muscle, 21
Delusion, 76
Demedoeycline, 276
Dementia, 389
AJzhenners, 80, 112
vascular, 77, 101, 123
Dendrites, 63
Dengue fever, 173
Denial, 118
Dentate nucleus, 37
Deoxyribonucleic acid. See DNA
Dependent personality disorder, 87
Dependent venous blood volume, 212
Dependent venous pressure, 212
Depolarization, 69, 210
membrane, 231, 236,253
ventricular, 270
Depression, L21
norepinephrine in, 98
sleep abnonnalities, 97
nacentortick,184
Dermatophyte infeetion, 170
Dennoid cyst, 356
Desensitization, systematic, 99
Desipramine, 282
Detrusor muscle, 12
Diabetes insipidus, eentral versus nephro-
genic, 211, 226
Diabetic ketoacidosis, 271
Diabetic persons, cause of death, 394
Diacylglycerols, 157
Diaphragm
relaxation, 259
structures crossing, 10
Diaphragmatie hernia, congenital, 403
Diarrhea
bacterial, infantile, 393
in children, 392
in infants, 393
organisms associated with, 167
Diastole, 213
Diastolic interval, 215, 269
Diastolic pressure
arterial, decreased, 214
left ventricular end, 222
D CUPS DAKRI mnemonic, 17
Dacarbazine, 289
Dantrolene, 273
Dapsone, 280
DCML (dorsal column-medial lemniscus)
sensory system, 40, 61
De Quervain thyroiditis, 318
Dead space
alveolar, 258
anatomical, 211, 265
physiologic, 210
Death
cancer-related, 404
ceH, programmed, 365
children's understanding, 100
most common cause
in black males, 394
in children, 394
in cystic fibrosis, 394
in diabetic persons, 394
in neonates, 393
in systemic- lupus erythematosus, 393
in United States, 390, 394
stages, 122
sudden cardiac, 334, 390
viral pneumonia leading to, 391
Deep peroneal nerve, 3
Deep vein thrombosis, 353
Defense mechanisms
anxiety, 105-106
immature, 78-79
mature, 110-111
narcissistic,118
Diastolie volume, left ventricular end,
222
Diazepam, 278
Diazoxide, 287
Dicloxacillin, 283
Diethylcarbamazine, 306
Diffusion, simple, 241, 260
Diffusion rate, 240, 245
DiGeorge syndrome, 28, 200, 382
Digitoxin, 277
Digoxin, 277
antidote, 411
tOxieity, 273
Dihydrofolate reductase, 130, 147,281
Dihydrogen phosphate, 230
Dihydropteroate synthetase, 287
Dihydrotestosterone, 214
Dilator pupillae muscle, 11
DimOlphic fungi, 187
2,4-Dinitrophenol, 152
Diphenhydramine, 278
Diphyllobothrium latum. 161. 178
Diploid, 160
Dislocation, carpal bone, 405
Disorganized schizophrenia, 101
Displacement, 106
Dissecting aortic aneurysm, 341
Disseminated intravascular coagulation
(Die), 320
Dissoeiation, 105
Dissociative fugue, 99
Distal extremity, voluntary refined move-
ments, 58
Disulfiram, 84, 94, 274
Diureties, sites of action, 286
Diverticulum
colonic, 398
eckel, 357, 372
DNA
eoding strand, 141
copy, 161
double stranded, denaturation, 162
mitochondrial, disorders, 63
replication, 131
T:C content, 132
template strand, 141
DNA ligase, 152
DNA polymerase I, 140
DNA polymerases, 130, 155
DNA viruses, 180
oncogenic, 338
Dopamine, 105, 294, 306
deficiency, extrapyramidal side effects. 274
exeess, psychotic symptoms, 304
prolactin and, 305
wakefulness and, 80
Dopamine 2 receptors, 298
Dopamine agonists, phannacologic effeets,
124
Dopamine antagonists. 299
Dopamine receptors, 54
schizophrenia and, 88
Dopamine-B-hydroxylase, 222
Dorsal column
bilateral degeneration, 52
lesion, 38, 45, 53
Dorsal colurnn-mediallemniscus (DCML)
sensory system, 40, 61
Dorsal horn neurons, 60
Dorsal interosseus, 23
Dorsal prefrontal cortex lesions, 119
Dorsal rami, 53
Dorsal root. 53
Dorsal root ganglion, 53
Dorsal spinocerebellar tract, 38
Dorsalis pedis artery, 13
Dorzolamide, 276
Double stranded DNA (dsDNA), denatu-
ration, 162
Double-blind study, 125
Down syndrome, 330, 406, 407
Doxacurium, 298
Doxycycline, 306, 309
Driving foree rules, 414
Drug(s)
absOlption rate, 292
abuse, 405
bioavailability, 296
clearance, 308
dose, 309
efficacy, 292
elimination, 295
enterohepatic cycling, 294
first-pass effect, 292
intravenous administration, 299
ionized, 278
kinetics and dynamics, 417
potency, 288, 291
therapeutic indices, 293
Drug approval tests, 125
phase 1, 301
phase 4, 307
DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Man-
ual of Mental Disorders-IV), axes of
diagnosis, 116-117 .
Dubin-Johnson syndrome, 156,364
Duchennp muscular dystrophy, 328, 374
Duct cells of pancreas, 73
Ductus arteriosus, 27
patent, 25, 396
Ductus epididymis, 72
Ductus venosus, 27, 220
Duodenal atresia, 33
Duodenal ulcer, 319, 398
Duodenal-jejunal fiexure, 12
Duodenum, 62, 211, 228
Dust cells, 70, 195, 378
Dwarfism, 406
Dying, Kiibler-Ross stages, 122
Dynein, 73
Dynein arm abnonnalities, 71
Dynorphin, 285
Dysmetria, 50
Dyspareunia, 93
Dysplasia, 316
Dysthymia, 98
Dystrophic calcification, 357
Ea (aetivation energy), 135, 147, 151
Eaton-Lambert syndrome, 342
Ebola virus, 176
Echinococcus multilocularis, 164
Echinocytes,319
Eclipse period of viral growth, 165, 168
Ectopic pregnancy
abdominal, 403
most common site, 403
Edema, transudative, 325
Edinger-Westphal nucleus, preganglionic
parasympathetic fibers arising from,
57,60
Edrophonium, 297
Edward syndrome, 351, 407
EEF-2,149
EF o l, 136
EF -2, 131
Effective dose (ED so ), 309
Efferent pupillary defect, 1
Efficacy, 292
EF-G,127
Ego, 86
Ego dystonic homosexuality, 112, 123
Ego syntonic homosexuality, 112, 123
Eisenmenger syndrome, 31. 335
Ejaculation, 249
premature. 79
Ejection fraction (EF), 415
Ejection phase, 239
Elbow, bony articulations, 11
Elder abuse, 404
Electrocardiogram (ECG), 264-265
Electroencephalography (EEG), sleep
stage, 104
Electron transport chain (ETC), 158--159
ELISA test, 161, 196, 345
Elongation
in eukaryotes, 136
in prokaryotes, 142
Elongation cycle, 139
Emancipation, 120, 124
Embolism, 385
fat, 343
heart, left-sided, 386
paradoxic, 377
pulmonary, 314, 353
Embryology, 24-35
Emphysema, 361, 367, 375
Empyema, 378
Encephalitis
California, 176
hetpes, 405
Encephalopathy, Wernicke's, 39
Endocarditis
bacterial, 312, 376, 390
most common causes, 395
Endolymph, 39
Endometrial carcinoma, 336
Endometriosis, 365
Endonucleases, 153
B-Enclotphin, 302
Energy metabolism, rules and facts, 413
Energy oEactivation, 135, 147, 151
Enkephalins, 95, 307
Entacapone, 289
Entamoeba histolytica, 163
Enterobius vermicularis, 167
Enterococcus, 175
Enteroendocrine (EE) cells, 74
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, 403
Enterohepatic cycling, 294
Enterokinase, 221, 235
Enteropathy, gluten-sensitive, 340
Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli, 167
Enuresis, 90
and sleep cycle, 76
Environment structural protein, 186
Enzymes, rate of reaction rules, 413
Eosinophil chemotactic factor A, 205
structures stained by, 379
Eosinophilic exudate, 340
Eosinophils, 63, 383
Ependymal cells, 46
Ependymoma, 402
Ephedrine, 308
Epidermal derivatives, 66
Epidennis
Malpighian layer, 64
regeneration, 359
Epilkmwphyton, 170
Epididymitis, acute, 394
Epidural hematoma, 4
Epidural hemorrhage, 361
Epiglottitis, 395
Epinephrine, 213, 219,225,228,232, 255
Epispadia, 29
Epitope, 193, 201
Epstein-Barr virus, 169,334,348
carcinomas associated with, 175, 179
Epstein-cardiac anomaly of tricuspid valve,
110
Erb-l oncogene, 386
Erb-2 oncogene, 386
Erb-3 oncogene, 386
Erectile disorder
primary, 113
secondary, 113
selective, 113
Erection, 269
Erector spinae, 16
Ergosterol, 183
Ergotamines,305
Error
chance of, 88
type I (alpha), 120
type II (beta), 114
Erysipelas, 393
Erythema marginatum, 352
Erythema multiforme, 352
Erythema nodosum, 352
Erythromycin, 155, 276, 303
Escherichia coli, 182
enterohemorrhagic, 403
enterotoxigenic, 167
meningitis, 179
Esophageal carcinoma, 397. 399
Esophagus
Barrett, 333
gastric nerve plexus, 4
muscle type, 69
Essential fatty acids, 132
Esters, breakdown, 307
Estradiol, 220, 253
Estriol, 216, 244
Estrogen, 68, 225, 262, 293
cancer and, 288
progestin plus, 284
Estrone, 268
Ethacrynic acid, 306
Ethambutol, 277
Ethyl alcohol, 331
Ethylene glycol, antidote, 411
Euchromatin, 68
Eukaryotes
cell cycle phases. 136-137
elongation factors, 136
RNA polymerases, 161
start codon, 161
TATA box promoter, 158
transcription, 131, 160
translation, 160
translation enzymes, 135
translocation, 131
Eustachian tube, 13
Ewing's sarcoma, 322, 406
Exanthem subitum, 171
Excision endonuclease deficiency, 128
Excitatory fibers, 41
Excitatory neurons, in cerebellar cortex, 37
Excitatory transmitters. 258
Exhibitionism, 123
Exocytosis. 224
Exonucleases, 145
Expiration, 245
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV), 242
Exposure, 99
Expressive aphasia, 48
External abdominal oblique muscle, 2
External auditory meatus, 24
External jugular vein, 13
Extinction, 98, 116
Extracellular fluid, 217
osmolarity, 258
volume, 248
Extrafusal muscle fibers, 51
Extrahepatic biliary atresia, 30
Extrapyramidal side effects, 274
Extremity
distal, voluntary refined movements, 58
lower .
compartments and associated
nerves, 3
nerve lesions, 20
Exudate, types, 340
Eye(s)
anopsia, left, 50
blind spot, 14
posterior chamber. 19
tumor, in children, 401
Eye movements
abnormalities, lesions associated with,
55-56
conjugate, 38
Eye muscles, 11
Feeding tube
nasogastric, 401
refusal, 109
Felty syndrome, 354
Female physicians. suicide rate, 108
Females
genital tract tumor, 399-400
genitalia, embryonic structures, 32
malignant tumors, 399
most common cancer, 404
pseudohermaphrodite, 373
reproductive cycle, 72, 74
suicide rate, 120
Femoral canal, 6
Femoral head necrosis, 367
Femoral hernia, 9
Femoral nerve, 3, 18,20
Femur, supracondylar fracture. 16
Fentanyl, 275
Ferritin, 385
Ferrochelatase, 137, 149
Fertilization. 240
Fetal circulation, 215, 220
Fetal well being, 216
Fetishism, transvestite, 77
Fever
dengue, 173
rheumatic. See Rheumatic fever
trench, 175
yellow, 169, 187 .
Fibrinoid neerosis, 371
Fibrinolysis, 336
Fibrinous exudate, 340
Fibroblasts, regeneration, 359
Fibrocystic disease, breast. 368-369
Fibular neck fracture, 19
Fifth aortic arch, structures derived from, 2
Figure drawing, 90-91
Filiform papillae. 71
Filovirus, 176
Filtration, 236. 249
Filtration fraction (FF), 229, 241
Finasteride, 291
First aortic areh, structures derived from, 2
First heart sound, splitting, 267
First pharyngeal groove, 24
First oorder elimination, 295
First -pass effect, 292
Fissure of Sylvius, 54
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome. 362
Fixation, 105
Facial expression, 108
Facial nerve, terminal branches, 23
Facial veins, 11
Factitious disorder, 77, 110
Factor VII, 375
Factor XlI, 375
Fading, 116
Fallopian tube, 17
False-negative rate, 109
False-positive rate. 104
Fanconi-like syndrome, 303
Famesyl pyrophosphate (FPP), 136
Fascia
Camper's, 14
Scarpa's,14
Fasciculus cuneatus, 57
Fasciculus gracilis, 53
Fast, prolonged, 130, 132
F astigial nucleus, 37
Fat
content, and total body water, 266
embolism, 343
metabolism, 157
necrosis, 371
Fatty acid(s), 132
double bonds, 133, 146
essential, 132
omega-3, 151
oxidation, 139
short-chain, 129, 239
synthesis. 139. 154
very long chain, 75
Feeding center, hypothalamus, 56
Fixed interval schedule, 84
Fixed ratio schedule. 84
Flavivirus,187
Flocculonodular lobe, function, 48
Flow cytometric analysis, 197
Fluconazole. 280, 290, 303
Flucytosine, 306
Fluid compartments, 217-218, 225-226
Flumazenil, 81,286, 290
Fluoroquinolones, 299
Fluphenazine, 286
Flurazepam, 105
Flutamide, 279
F-Met-Peptides,206
Fo/Fl complex, 159
Folate, 138
deficiency, 160,342.366
exeess, 140
Folic acid deficiency. 159,410
Folk medicine, 117
Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), 234
Follicular lymphoma, 407
Follicular phase, 251
Food and Drug Administration (FDA),
drug approval tests, 125
Foot drop, 19
Foramen magnum, 17
Foramen of Monro, 13
Foramen of Winslow, 17
Foramen ovale, 17,27
closure, 33
Foramen rotundum, 17
Foramen spinosum, 17
Foregut derivatives, 31
Formal operations, 79
Foscamet,299
Fossa ovale, 27
Fourth aortic arch, structures derived from, 2
Fovea, 56
Fractional reserve capacity (FRC), 234, 242
Fracture
carpal bone, 405
fibular neek, 19
humeral neck, 12
midshaft humeral, 17
supracondylar femoral, 16
Fragile X syndrome, 355
Frameshift mutation, 132
Francisella, 188
Francisella tularensis, 184
Free radicals, oxygen-derived, 372
Free water clearance, 241
Friedreich ataxia, 347
Frontal eye fields, 47, 54
Frontal lobe
functions, 111
orbitomedial, lesions, 119
Frontal lobe syndrome, 46
Frotteurism, 123
Fructose, 232
Fructose-l,6-bisphosphatase, 129
Fugue, dissociative, 99
Fungal infection, in HIV-AIDS, 336
Fungi, 173, 183
dimrnphic, 187
ribosomal size, 190
staining, 184
Fungiform papillae, 64
Fusobacterium, 165


GO phase, 137
Gl phase, 136
G2 phase, 137
C:ABA,37,76,296
Gabapentin, 302
Gag gene, 168
Gag reflex, 9
Galactitol, 142
Galactose, 134, 139
B-Galactosidase, 152
Galactoside permease, 152
Gallbladder, 69
porcelain, 338
strawberry, 364
Gallstones, 259, 332
Gametocytes, 171
Ganciclovir, 305
Ganglia, 39
Ganglioside, 145
Ganglioside GM 2 , in Tay-Sachs disease,
133
Gangrenous neerosis, 371
Gap junctions, 67
Gardner syndrome, 352, 386
Gardnerella vaginalis, 181
Gas exehange, alveolar, 69
Gastric cancer, 314, 320, 328
Gastric emptying, 213
Gastric nerve plexus, esophageal, 4
Gastric ulcer, 313, 398
Gastrinoma, 318
Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP), 246
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD),
337
Gastrointestinal traet
ischemia, 398
surface area, 267
Gastrointestinal tumor, benign, 398
Gastrosehisis, 34
Gaucher's disease, 156, 368, 407
Gaze, hOriwntal, 54
Genderidentity, determinants, 117
Gene(s)
definition, 141
jumping, 189
Gene expression, codominant, exceptions,
156
Gene therapy, 195
Generalized anxiety disorder, 95
C:enomie libranes, 140, 156
Gentamicin,291
Germ cell tumor, 399
in males, 321, 401
ovarian, 401
Gerstmann's syndrome, 43,119
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, 27
Ghon complex, 351
Ghon focus, 351
Giant cell arteritis, 367
Giant cell bone tumor, 374
Giardia lamblia, 184
Gigantism, 334
Gilbert's syndrome,144
Glanzmann syndrome, 372
Gliplzide, 288
Global aphasia, 103
Glomerular capillaries, 266
Glomerular filtration rate, 233, 247
Glomerulonephritis, 392
membranoproliferative, 333
membranous, 310
postinfectious, 332, 386
poststreptococcal, 360, 373
rapidly progressive, 356
Glossopharyngeal nerve, 22
C:lucagon, 214, 219, 229
inhibition, 221
seeretion, 221, 229
Glucocerebrosirlase deficiency, 156. 368
Glucocorticoids, 298
Glucokinase, 127
Gluconeogenesis, 128, 132
Glueose, 134, 139
transport, 45, 153
uptake
cortisol and, 227
insulin-independent, 213
in urine, 215
Glucose-6-phosphatase, 157
deficiency, 150,321
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-
PD).151
deficiency, 134, 138, 335, 341, 364
0l-I,4-Glucosidase,lysosomal,150
0l-1,4-Glueoside,215
Glucosyl cerebroside, 156
Glucuronidation, 303
GLUT (glucose transporter), 153
Glutamate, 37,159,160
Glutamate dehydrogenase,142
Glutamic acid, 126, 296
Glutamine, 126,137,145,258
Glutathione peroxidase, 134, 143
Gluten-sensitive enteropathy, 340
Gluteus maximus, 10
Glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase, 133
Glycerol kinase, 143
Glycerol phosphate shuttle, 137
Glycine, 137, 155, 159
Glycogen phosphorylase,144
hepatic. 150
musele, 150
Glycogen storage disease, 321
Glycogen synthase, 133
Glycogenic organs, 257
Glycogenolysis, 142
Glycolysis, 149
red blood cells, 144
Glycoprotein 41, 166
Glycoprotein 120, 185
Glycoprotein 120 receptor, 327
Glycoprotein Ib, 360
Glycoprotein lIb and IlIa, 332
Glycoprotein lIb and Ilia receptors, 308
Gold, antidote, 411
Golgi apparatus, posttranslational modifica-
tions, 66
Golgi tendon organs, 45
Gonadal veins, drainage, 21
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH),
230
constant infusion, 254
pulsatile infusion, 246
release, 219
Gonads, 24, 32
Gonococcus, 173, 180
Good Samaritan law, 99
Goodpasture antigen, 353
Goodpasture syndrome, 208, 332, 346
Gout, 343. 357. 370
Graft rejection, renal transplantation,
380-381
Grafts, types, 202
Gmm positive, 171
Gram-negative cocci, 186
Granule cells, 41, 105
Granulomatous disease, chronic, 190, 199,
208
in children, 310
Granulosa cell, 234, 255
Granulosa cell ovarian tumor, 329
Granulose cells, 63
Graves disease, 208, 318, 381
Gravity receptors, 60
Gray rami, 40
Great cardiac vein, 10
Griseofulvin, 275
Group A Bohemolytic streptococci infec-
tion, 311
Growth hormone (GH), 120,249
adenoma producing, 348
deficiency, 270
effects, 264
excess, 264
secretion, 215, 236, 244
sleep stage and, 224
Guanethidine, 291
Guanine, 155
Guanosine triphosphate (GrP), 127, 131, 136
Guarnieri bodies, 173
Gubernaculum, 25, 32
remnants, 18
Guillain- Barre syndrome, 350
Gut, primitive, 25
rotation, 33
HI histones, 74
Haitpinloop, 142
Hairy cell leukemia, 382
Hallucination, 76
hypnopompic, 114
Haloperidol, 286, 293
Halothane
succinylcholine and, 285
toxicity, 412
Hakted-Reitan battery, 100
Hand
muscles, 23
palmar arches, 18
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease, 169
Hantavirus, 176
Haploid, 160
Hapten, 194, 208
Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 327
Healing
by primary intention, 326
by secondary intention, 318
Health care, costliest problem, 405
Heart
anatomy, 5--6
embolism, left-sided, 386
Heart disease
carcinoid, 323
in children, 390
cyanotic, 390
Heart failure
congestive, 362
right-sided, 383, 390
Heart rate, and diastolic interval, 215
Heart sound, first, splitting, 2£7
Heberden nodes, 329
Heinz bodies, 334, 388
Helicase,162
Helicobacter pylori, 166, 327
Helminthic parasites, 396
Helplessness, learned, GABA levels and.
76
Hemangioblastoma, 359
Hematoma
epidural, 4
subarachnoid, 23
subdural, 5
Hematopoietic cells, regeneration, 359
Hematoxylin, structures stained by, 379
Hematuria, 392
painless, 392
Heme, preeursors, 155
Hemianopsia
bitemporal heteronymous, 50
left homonymous, 50
right nasal, 50
Hemiazygous vein, 9
Hemiballismus, 47
Hemisection, spinal cord, 53
Hemochromatosis, 372
Hemoglobin F, 362
Hemoglobin-oxygen binding sites,
227-228,2£8
Hemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve
in CO poisoning, 247
shift to right, 211
Hemoglobinuria, paroxysmal nocturnal,
313
Hemolytic anemia, autoimmune, 208, 330
Hemolytic uremic syndrome, 359
Hemophilia A, 335
Hemophilia B, 342
Hemorrhage
epidural, 361
intracerebral, 405
subarachnoid, 361
subdural, 361
Hemorrhagic cerebral infarction, 377
Hemorrhagic exudate, 340
Hemosiderin, 369
Hemostasis, 383
Henoch-Schonlein purpura, 349
Hepadnavirus. 171, 180
Heparin
antidote, 411
low molecular weight, 280
in pregnancy, 275
therapeutic monitoring, 300
Hepatitis A, 167, 172, 185, 361, 384
Hepatitis B, 163, 172,337,365,384
chronic active, 179
serology markers, 371
window phase, 179
Hepatitis B surface antibody/antigen, 167,
172,179,182,371
Hepatitis C, 164, 172, 384
Hepatitis C antibody/antigen, 165, 179, 371
Hepatitis D, 182,351,384
Hepatitis E, 168, 182, 384
Hepatitis E antibody/antigen, 165, 179,
183,267,337,365
Hepatoeellular carcinoma, chemical agents
associated with, 327
Hepatocytes, functions, 63
Hepatoma, 320
Hermaphrodism
false
female, 373
male, 358
males, 25
true, 381
Hernia, 403
congenital diaphragmatic, 403
direct versus indirect, 13
femoral, 9
Herniation, transtentorial (uncal), 347
Heroin, 326
Herpes simplex virus (HSV), 180
encephalitis, 405
type 1, 183, 189
type 2, 183, 189. 326
Hers' disease, 150
Heterochromatin, 65
Heteronymous hemianopsia, bitemporal, 50
Heterophile-negative mononucleosis, 186
Hexosaminidase A deficiency, 156, 315
Hexose monophosphate (HMP) shunt, 127,
151,155,158,206
High altitudes, ventilation in, 225
High-altitude hypoxia, 240
High-density lipoprotein (HDL), 146
High-resistance system, 216
Hindgut derivatives, 31
Hippocampal lesions, 92
Hirschsprung's disease, 28, 366
Histamine, 122, 255, 358
Histamine receptors, activation, 273--274
Histidine, 149, 159
Histidine operon, 154
Histiocytes. 378
Histiocytosis X, 348
Histone acetylases, 160
Histones, HI, 74
Histoplasl'lW capsulatum, 168, 189
Histrionic personality disorder, 89
HIV. See Human immunodeficiency virus
(HlV)
HLA (human leukocyte antigen) gene
products, 200
HMG-CoA reductase, 129, 154, 293
HMG-CoA synthase, 154
HMG-CoA synthetase, 148
HMP shunt, 127, 151, 155, 158, 206
Hodgkin lymphoma, 399
Holmes and Rahe stress scale. 120
Homeodomain proteins, 134
Homer-Wright rosettes, 388
Homocysteine methyl transferase, 141, 159
Homocystinemia, 160
Homogentisate oxidase defY, 129, 334
Homonymous hemianopsia, left, 50
Homosexuality, 112, 123
Honeycomb lung, 386
Hoof-and-mouth disease, 180
Hookworms, 186
Horizontal gaze
contralateral, 54
ipsilateral, 54
Hormones
binding proteins, 268
lipid-soluble, 243, 252-253
water-soluble, 239, 243
Hormone-sensitive lipase, 136, 249
Horner's syndrome, 38
Hospitalization, 390
Housemaid's knee, 14
Howell-Jolly bodies, 358
Hst-l oncogene, 385, 386
Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), 30,
246
assay, 29
beta-,319
peak concentration. 238
Human chorionic somatomammotropin
(hCS), 216. 218
Human-herpesvirus (HHV), 171, 332, 340
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV),
163,310,327
Human immunodefIciency virus (HIV) in-
fection
confirmatory test, 161,205,333
fungal infections, 336
maternal transmission, 82
most common infectious agent, 329
screening test, 161, 196
viral infections, 326
Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) gene
products, 200
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection,
166,189
cervical cancer serotypes, 379
condyloma acuminatum serotypes, 377
serotypes, 182
squamous cell carcinoma risk and, 322
Human placental lactogen (hPL), 218
Human T-cell leukemia virus-l (HTLV-l),
374
Humeral fracture, midshaft, 17
Humeral neck fraeture, 12
Humerus, 22
intertubercular groove, 5
Humor, 111
Humoral immunity, 353
Hunter syndrome, 362
Huntington disease, 354, 364, 407
Huntington's chorea, 45, 82
Hurler syndrome, 362
Hyaluronic acid, 73
Hydatidiform mole, 33, 321
Hydralarine,280,306
Hydrocephalus, normal pressure, 110
Hydrogen bonds, 145, 162
Hydrolysis, 309
Hydrophobic end of phospholipids, 214
Hydrostatic pressure, in Bowman's capsule,
212
Hydroxyapatite, 75
B-Hydroxybutyrate, 153
5-Hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), 330
Hydroxyl end ofDNA/RNA, 133
l-at-Hydroxylase,152
ll-J3-Hydroxylase deficiency, 238
17 o at-Hydroxylase deficiency, 232
21-J3-Hydroxylase deficiency, 244, 258
Hydroxyproline, 129, 231, 260
Hydroxyurea, 289
Hyperaldosteronism
primary, 239, 334
secondary, 210
Hyperbilirubinemia, conjugated. 132. 156
Hypercalcenna,247
Hypercholesterolemia, familial, 319, 407, 408
Hypercortisolism, 233
primary, 250
secondary, 250
Hyperglycemia, 221
Hypetparathyroidism
primary, 217, 357
secondary, 217
Hypetplasia, 377
Hypetpolarization, 69, 266
Hypersegmented neutrophils, 353, 359
Hypersensitivity reaction
type I (anaphylactic), 346
type II (cytotorlc), 193,208,346
type III (immune complex), 199,346
type IV (cell-mediated), 195,346
Hypertension
portal, 16,331
pulmonary, 391
reversible, 391
Hyperthyroidism, secondary, 218
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, 377
Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 32
Hypertrophic scar, 374
Hypertrophy, 331
Hypervariable region, 201
Hyperventilation, 219, 256 .
Hypnopompic hallucination, 114
Hypnozoite, 172
Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, 80
Hypoaldosteronism, primary, 240
Hypocalcenna,152,236
Hypochondriasis, 94
Hypoehromic microcytic anenna, 318, 367
Hypoeortisolism
primary, 250
secondary. 250
Hypogammaglobinemia
Bruton X-linked, 205
common variable, 203
transient, of infancy, 206
Hypoglossal canal, 18
Hypoglycenna, 221
Hypogonadism
pituitary, 254
primary, 254
Hypokalemic acidosis, 258
Hypokalemic alkalosis, 219, 242
Hypoparathyroidism, 349
primary. 217
secondary, 217
Hypophosphatemia, 152
Hypospadias, 28
Hypothalamic nuclei
ADH production, 49
satiety center, 49
Hypothalamus
feeding center, 56
hormones, 243
median eminence region, 236
preoptic area, 50
temperature regulation, 40, 41
Hypothesis
alternative, 96
log-kill, 299
null, 83
wobble, 127
Hypothyroidism, 266
congenital, 318
iatrogenic, 393
lithium-induced. 90
noniatrogenic, 392
primary, 218
secondary, 218
tertiary, 218
Hypotonia, 38
Hypoventilation, 228, 244, 247, 250
Hypoxanthine, 136
Hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl
transferase (HGPRT) deficiency, 149
Hyporla, 391
high-altitude, 240
I gene, 152
I -cell disease, 148
Id,84,86
Identity formation, 88
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic putpura, 353
ldiotype, 194
Ileum, 70
Ilium, 4
Illusion, 76
Imipenem, 294
Immature defense mechanisms, 78-79
Immotile cilia syndrome, 71
Immune complex hypersensitivity reaction,
199,346
Immune response
activation, 198
second cell involved, 203
secondary, 192, 195, 196,200
Immune system
aequired, 195, 199, 204
adaptive versus innate branch, 208
downregulation, 206
Immunity
cellular, 190, 347
humoral, 353
Immunodeficiency disease, severe com-
bined,148,324,361,408
Immunofluorescent staining, in nephritic
disease, 332
Immunogenicity, 205
Immunoglobulin(s). See also Antibody(ies)
hypervariable region, 200
isotypes, 193
most common circulating, 403
valence, 190
Immunoglobulin A, 65, 194, 198, 200, 203,
208
deficiency, 194
nephropathy, 332, 364, 382
secretory, functions, 197
Immunoglobulin D,207
Immunoglobulin E, 196, 204
Immunoglobulin G, 193,203,205,206
anti-HAV,361
Immunoglobulin G3, 205
Immunoglobulin G4, 191. 208
Immunoglobulin M, 190, 196, 197,200,
203,207
anti-HAV,361
Implantation, 34
Incidence rate, 99, 125
Infant. See also Neonate
cardiac tumor, 397
coarctation of aorta, 322
diarrhea, 393
mortality, 92
motor development, 117
transient hypogammaglobinemia, 206
Infant Doe, 89
Infectious arthritis, 402
Inferior cerebellar peduncle, 38
Inferior colliculus, 43
Inferior mesenteric artery, 3
branches, 16
Inferior oblique muscle, 4
Inferior phrenic artery, 21
Inferior rectus muscle, 5
Inflammation, acute, signs, 367
Inflammatory arthritis, 402
Infliximab, 303
Influenza virus, 181, 188
Information
flow, 96
withholding, 82
Informed consent, 86
t;xceptions, 93
Infrapatellar bursa, 23
Infraspinatus muscle, 7
Inhaled anesthetics, 278
Inhibitory neuron, in cerebellar cortex, 37
Inkblot test, 115
Inner cortex, 65
Inner ear, 39
Inner membrane of mitochondria, 72
Inosine monophosphate, 136
Insonmia, 390
Inspiration, 267
Inspiratory capacity, 242
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV), 242
Insulin, 214, 246, 268
effeets
on fat metabolism, 253
on protein metabolism, 260
endogenous secretion, 220
Insulin-Continued
preparations, 277
protein storage and, 234
secretion, 237, 248, 272
Insulin-like growth factor-l (IGF-l), 220,
271
lnsulinoma, 328
Int-2 oncogene, 385, 386
Integrase, 171
B 2 -lntegrins, 193
Integument, 64
Intellectualization, 106
Intelligent quotient (IQ). 80. 85
and academic aehievement, 107
formula, 98
stabilization, 103
test, 91
Intention tremor, 55
Interatrial septal defects, 29
Intercellular adhesion molecule 1
(ICAMl), 361
Interferon(s), 169
autoantibodies, 196
Interferon--y, 193, 196
Interleukin-2, 204
Interleukin-3, 197
Interleukin-4, 196, 198, 199
Interleukin-5. 207
Interleukin-7,206
Interleukin o 8, 194, 205
Interleukin-lO, 196, 202
Interleukin-13, 196
Intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL),
145
Internal abdominal oblique muscle, 12
Internal auditory meatus, 18
Internal capsule, anterior limb, 58
Internal iliac nodes, 22
Intemallaryngeal nerve, 24
Internal mammary arteries, collateraliza-
tion, 384
Internal thoracic artery, 14
Interposed nucleus, 37
Interstitial fluid, 217
Intertubereular groove, humerus, 5
Interval scale, 109
Intervertebral disc. 21
Intestinal obstruction, 392
Intra-alveolar pressure, 251
Intracellular fluid, 217
volume, osmolarity and, 232
Intracerebral hemorrhage, 405
Intraductal papilloma, 342
Intraembryonic coelom, 26
Intrafusal muscle fibers, 51
Intramedullary spinal cord tumor, 402
Intranuclear inclusions, Cowdry type A, 189
Intrapleural pressure, 212
at base oflung, 236
lung reeoil and, 230
Intraspinal tumor, 401
Intrathoracic pressure, 268
Intravenous drug administration, 299
Intrinsic factor (IF), 68. 263
Introjection, 78
Intussusception, 352
Inulin, 222
clearance, 256
concentration, 216
Invariant chain protein, 198, 200
Iodine, 408
deficiency, 318
dietary, 267
Ions, diffusion, 233
Ipratropium, 279, 305
Iron (Fe)
absorption, 228
antidote, 411
excessive deposition, 409
Iron deficiency anemia, 367
Ischium, 4
Isocitrate dehydrogenase, 131, 137, 153
Isoeleetric point, 129
Isograft, 202
Isolation of affect, 106
Isoleucine, 127, 155
lsoniffidd,156,304,306,411
Isotonic contraction, 230
lsovolumetriccontraction, 236,244, 249
Isovolumetric relaxation, 225, 233
Itraconazole, 297
Ixodes tick, 184
Janeway lesions, 376
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, 192
Jaundice, physiologic, of newborns, 383
JC virus, 188, 360
Jejunum, 216
Job syndrome, 365
Jones criteria, rheumatic fever, 350, 369
Judgment, substituted, 80
Jugular foramen, 18
anatomic characteristics, 14
transit time, 234
Large segment deletions, 132
LARP mnemonic, 4
Laryngeal muscles, 1-2
innervation, 11
Laryngopharynx, sensory innervation, 22
Latency stage, 100
Latent period of viral growth, 173
Lateral collateral ligament, 23
Lateral cricoarytenoid muscles, 2
Lateral fissure, 54
Lateral foramina of Luschka, 44
Lateral geniculate body
right, lesion, 50
thalamic nucleus, 42
Lateral hypothalamic zone, 56
Lateral medullary syndrome, 36
Lateral pontine syndrome, 36
Lateral rectus muscle, 4
Lateral sclerosis, amyotrophic, 54
Lateral vestibular nucleus, 37
Latissimus dorsi muscle, 5, 8
Lead
excess, deposition, 372
poisoning, 357,365,411
Lead-time bias, 108
Learned helplessness, GABA levels and, 76
Learning disability, 389
Lecithin:sphingomyelin ratio, 265, 350
Left abducens nerve lesion, 55
Left colic flexure, 19
Left coronary artery, 14
Left eye anopsia, 50
Left gonadal vein, 21
Left homonymous hemianopsia, 50
Left Meyer's loop lesion, 50
Left optic nerve lesion, 50
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve, 3
Left subclavian artery, 16
Labetalol, 278 Left umbilical artery, 27
Labioscrotal swelling, 24, 31, 32 Left umbilical vein, 27
Lae operon, 135, 136 Left vagus nerve lesion, 5
Lae repressor protein, 152 Left ventricular end diastolic pressure
J3-Lactamase inhibitors, 275 (LVEDP),222
Laetose fermenters, 190 Left ventricular end diastolic volume
Lactulose,278 (LVEDV),222
«Lady between two Majors" mnemonic, 5 Left-to-right shunts, 336
Laminin, 382 Leg, compartments, 3
Langerhans cells, 66, 378 Legal competence, 76
Large intestine, 72 Legionella, 169, 176, 188
Jugular venous distention, 383
Jumping genes, 189
Juxtaglomerular cells, 63, 69, 74, 213
Kl capsule, 179
Kala azar, 186
Kartagener's syndrome, 7I
Kawasaki disease, 381
Kayser-Fleischer ring, 43, 340, 387
K-complexes,104
Keloid, 310
Keratan sulfate, 74
Keratin pearls, 341, 387
Keratinocytes, 72
Ketamine, 280
Ketoacidosis, diabetic, 271
Ketoconazole, 301
Ketogenolysis, 154
at-Ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, 131, 137
Ketone bodies, 147, 149, 158
17-Ketosteroids, urinary, 248
Kidney. See also Renal entries
adult polycystic, 330, 380
flea-bitten, 349
polycystic disease, 312, 380
regeneration, 360
right, 9
Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease, 317
Kinesins, 73
Ki-ras oncogene, 385, 386
Klatskin tumor, 358
Klebsiella pnemrwniae, 187
Klinefelter syndrome, 310, 368
Kliiver- Bucy syndrome, 45, 77
Knee, structures, 23-24
Korsakoff's syndrome, 55
Krukenberg tumor, 315
Kiibler-Ross stages of death and dying, 122
Kupffer cells, 195, 378
Leishmania donovani, 186
Leishmania infection, 167
Lente insulin, 277, 279
Lentigo, benign, 316
Lentigo maligna melanoma, 377
Leptospira. 177
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, 149,323
Lethal dose (LD so ), 309
Leucine, 127, 128
Leukemia, 362
acute lymphocytic, 314, 335
acute pro myelocytic, 406
adult T-cell, 349
chemical agents associated with, 327,
328
chronic lymphocytic, 338, 406, 407
chronic myelogenous, 351, 376, 406
hairy cell, 382
normochromic normoeytic. 384
promyeloeytic (M3), 373, 406
Leukocyte alkaline phosphatase (LAP), 376
Leukocytes, polymOlphonuclear, 209
Leukoencephalopathy, progressive multifo-
cal, 188
Leukotriene(s)
araehidonic acid products, 337
bronchospasm-related, 330
in late-phase inflammatory response, 192
Leukotriene B4' 198,205, 2B7
Leuprolide, 308
Levator palpebrae superioris, 6
Lewy bodies, 361, 388
Leydig cell tumor, 334, 375
Leydig cells, 66
Libman-Sacks endocarditis, 350
Lies, aceeptability. 79, 107
Life, threats against another person's, 118
Ligament ofTreitz, 12
Ligament teres, 27
Ligamentum arteriosum, 27
Ligamentum venosum, 27
Light reflex, 6
Limbic system, 57
anterior nuclear, 43
functions, 112
lesions, 119
medial nuclear, 42
Lingual nerve, 14
Linoleic aeid, 132
Linolenic acid, 132
Lipase, hormone-sensitive, 136
Lipoprotein(s), characteristics, 145-146
Lipoprotein lipase, 138
Lipoxygenase pathway, 197
Liquefaction neerosis, 371
Lisch nodules, 336
Lispro insulin, 277
Listeria, 167, 170, 188
Listeria mmwcytogenes, 165
Lithium. 100, no, 120, 280, 296
hypothyroidism from, 90
Liver, 143
abscess, 398
adenoma, 324
angiosarcoma, 32B, 364
carcinoma, chemical agents associated
with, 327
lobes. 4
regeneration, 359
transplantation, 391
tumor, 398
Liver lobule
central vein, 66
portal tract, 65
Liver-specific enzymes, 158
L-myc oncogene, 385
Lobar pneumonia, 391
Local anesthetics, 274
blockade, 281
Locus of control, 93
Log-kill hypothesis, 299
Long thoracic nerve, 8, 21
Loop diuretics. 286
Loop of Henle, 215
long, 252
Loose association, 97
Lorazepam, 297
Lou Gehrig's disease, 54
Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH),
280
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL), 134, 145
Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor
gene,mutation,408
Lower extremity
compartments and associated nerves, 3
nerve lesions, 20
Lower motor neurons
lesions, 53. 56
muscles innervated, 52
Lower subscapularis branch, posterior
braehial plexus, 3
Low-resistance system, 266
Lucid interval, 389
Lumbar puncture, 6-7
bloody tap on, 389
Lumbar splanchnics, 40
Lumbar vertebrae, spinal nerves associated
with, 44
Lumbosacral plexus, 18-19
Lung
abscess, 391
apex
hypoperfused, 211
hypoventilated, 228
intrapleural pressure, 244
base
hypetperfused, 270
hyperventilated, 219
bronchopulmonary segments, 12
capacity, total, 234, 243
cupola, 9
diffusion impairment, 220
honeyeomb. 386
measurements, 234, 242-243
neoplastie tumor, 397
oblique fissure, 11
obstructive versus restrictive disorders,
243
ventilation-perfusion relationships, 415
Lung cancer, 320
primary, 397
squamous cell, 344
Lung recoil, 238, 240
and intrapleural pressure, 230
Lupus erythematosus. See Systemic lupus
erythematosus
Luteal phase, 250
Luteinizing hormone (LH), 210. 265
male development, 223
surge, 215,222
Lymph node
B-cell area. 206
characteristics, 70
germinal centers, 69
T-cell area, 203
thymic-dependent area, 65
Lymphatic drainage, pelvic organs, 22
Lymphoblastic lymphoma, 349
Lymphocyte
B. See B cell(s)
T. See T-cell(s)
Lymphoeytic leukemia
aeute, 314, 335
chronic, 338, 406, 407
Lymphoma
Burkitt, 379, 406
chemical agents associated with, 327
cutaneous T-cell, 369
follicular, 407
Hodgkin, 399
lymphoblastic, 349
mantle cell, 322
non-Hoclgkin, 399,405
Lysine,12B,141,146,151
Lysosomal a-l,4-g1ucosidase, 150
Lysosomal glucosidase deficiency, 321
Lysosomal storage disorder, 408
Lysosome, secondary, 67
Lysyl hydroxylase, 159
Lysyloxidase. 139
M cells. 67
M 1 receptors, 274, 2B4
M 2 receptors, 274, 280
Macrophages, 317
alveolar, 70, 195, 378
based on location, 378
mesangial,195
Macula densa, 68, 246, 270
Macule, 378
Magenta tongue, 142
Magnesium, 275
Magnesium ammonium phosphate calcu-
lus, 352
Major basic protein, 63
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC),
205
class I, 203,204,209
class 11. 196, 200
Malaria
diagnosis, 297
transmission, 274
Malassezia furfur, 189
Malate dehydrogenase, 131, 137
Malate shuttle, 154
Males
blaek, cause of death, 394
development, LH and testosterone lev-
els, 223
genitalia
embryonic structures, 24-25
stunted, 25
germ cell tumors, 321, 401
hermaphrodite. 25
Males-Continued
most common cancer, 404
most common tumor, 401
pseudohermaphrodite, 358
suicide rate, 120
Malignancy, 351
Malignant mesothelioma, 343
Malingering, 77
Mallory bodies, 388
Mallory-Weiss syndrome, 345. 392
Malpighian layer of epidermis, 64
Malpractice, 403
Mammillary bodies, 57
Manic-depressive disorder, 99, 102, 109
Mannitol, 282
Mannose, phosphorylation, 143
Mantle cell lymphoma, 322
MAP, 414
Marlan disease, 407
Marum syndrome, 335, 354
Marijuana, 315
Marital satisfaction, 103
Masking,baekward,114
Masochism, 123
Mast cells, 197, 375
Mastication, muscles, 16
Mastitis, 401
Masturbation, 105
Mature defense mechanisms, 110-111
Maximum concentration (C",,,,), 292
Maximum velocity (V ",ax)' 143, 155, 157,243
McArdle's disease, 150,321
MCH (mean corpuscular hemoglobin), 377
MCHC (mean corpuseular hemoglobin
concentration), 377
MCV (mean corpuscular volume), 377
Mean, 95
Measles, 176, 177
Measurement bias, 117
Mebendazole, 287
Mechanoreceptors, 69
Meckel diverticulum, 357,372
Meclizine, 304
Medial collateral ligament, 24
Medial foramen of Monroe, 44
Medial geniculate body thalamic nucleus,
39,42
Medial longitudinal fasciculus lesion, right,
56
Medial medullary syndrome, 35
Medial meniscus, 23
Medial midbrain syndrome, 36
Medial nuclear limbic system, 42
Medial pontine syndrome, 35 .
Medial rectus muscle, 4
Medial temporal lobe lesions, 92
Medial umbilical ligaments, 27
Median, 124
Median cord ofbraehial plexus, 22
Median eminence region, hypothalamus, 236
Median nerve, 8, 16, 21
Mediastinum
compartments associated with thoracic
structures, 15
structures fOlll1d in more than one, 11
Medium-chain aeyl CoA dehydrogenase
(MCAD) deficiency, 129
Medulla, 251
cranial nerves arising from, 44
Medullary carcinoma of thyroid, 320, 349,
363
Mees line, 357
Megaeolon, aganglionic, 28, 366
Megaloblastic anemia, 178, 342, 353
Megaloblasts,339
Meiosis, 32
Melanin, 69, 72, 363
Melanocytes,71
Melanoeytic tumor, benign, 354
Melanoma, 403
lentigo maligna, 377
nodular, 369
Melanosis coli, 350
Melasma. 348
Melatonin, 61, 94
Membrane
conductance, 213
depolarization, 231, 236, 253
resting potential, 226
semipermeable, 237
sodium/potassium effeets on, 414
transport, 238
Membrane attack complex (MAC), 322
complement factors in, 201
Membrane channels
ungated, 269
ventricular muscle, 257
voltage-gated, 231, 257
Membrane-associated polysomes, 68
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephri-
tis, 333
Membranous glomerulonephritis, 310
Membranous septal defects, 29
Memory impairment, lesions associated
with, 92
Men. See Males
MEN syndrome, 323
Menetrier's disease, 372-373
Meningioma, 331
Meningitides. most common causes,
395--396
Meningitis
in adults, 393
CSF findings, 325
Escherichia coli, 179
neonataL 393
in renal tmnsplant patients, 393
Meningocele, 41
Aleningococcus, 169, 180
Meningomyelocele, 41
Menses, 74, 263
Menstrual cycle, 240, 242, 250, 251, 260
Menstruation, 259
Mental illness, consent to treatment, 87
Mental retardation, 389
levels, 78
most common genetic cause, 406, 408
Meperidine, 309
6-Mercaptopurine,289
Mercury poisoning, 353, 411
Merkel cells, 69
Meropenem, 294
Mesangial macrophages, 195
Mesencephalic nucleus, 37
Mesencephalon, 26
Mesolimbic system, 298
Mesonephric duct, 25, 31, 32
Mesothelioma, 328
malignant, 343
Messenger RNA (mRNA), 150
polycistronic, 128
Metabolic acidosis, 230
hypokalemic, 258
with respiratory acidosis, 213
respiratory compensation mechanisms,
256
Metabolic alkalosis, 223
hypokalemic, 219. 242
renal compensation mechanisms, 244
Metal poisoning
acute, 393
chronic, 393
Metanephros, 31
Metaphase II, 33
Metaplasia, 324
Metaproterenol, 282
Metaraminol, 300
Metastatic calcification, 339, 345
Metformin, 293, 302, 306
Methanol, 131, 281
Methicillin, 283, 301
Methionine, 145
Methoxyflurane, toxicity, 412
Methyl alcohol, antidote, 411
Methyldopa, 297
a-Methyldopa, 285
Methylmalonyl CoA transferase, 159
Methyipheniclate(Ilitalin),105
Metronidazole, 276, 302, 304
Meyer's loop lesion, left, 50
Microcytic anemia, hypochromic, 318, 367
Microcytotoxic assay, 207
Microglia, 48, 66, 378
Microglial cells, 195
B 2 -Microglobin,205
Alicrosporum, 170
Microvillus, 67
Midazolam, 278, 293
Midbrain
cranial nerves arising from, 44
largest nucleus, 55
lesions, cranial nerves affected, 36
Middle cardiac vein, 10
Middle cerebellar peduncle, 38
Middle cerebral artery, 49
Middle meningeal artery, in epidural
hematoma, 4
Midshaft humeral fracture, 17
Migrating myoelectric complex, 221
Mikulicz syndrome, 343
Milk letdown, 70
Milk synthesis, 249
Minerals, vitamins and, 408-410
Minimal change disease, 375
MiIlOcycline, 298, 309
Minoxidil, 293
Minute ventilation, 220
Miosis
in Homer's syndrome, 38
from opioids, 276
Misoprostol, 290
Missense mutation, 132
Mitochondria, 72, 75, 140
Mitochondrial DNA genetic disorders, 63
Mitochondrial inheritance, 133
Mitotic division, 25
Mitral insufficiency, 261
Mitral stenosis, 262
Mitral valve, 16
closure, 244
opening, 225
prolapse, 324
Mode, 122
Mole, 354
Molindone, 300
Molluscum contagiosum, 170
Molybdenum (Mb), 408
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAGIs),
tyramine and, 91
Monocytosis, 370
Mononucleosis
heterophile-negative, 186, 188
heterophile-positive, 200
infectious, 363
Monosodium urate crystals, 357
Monospot test, 363
Morphine, overdose, 301.412
Mortality rate, types, 108
Mossy fibers, 41
Motilin, 219
Motor cortex, primary, 47
Motor development, infant, 117
Motor neurons, 51
lower
lesions, 53, 56
muscles innervated, 52
upper
function, 43
lesions, 38
Movement disorder, 122
Mo
ctam,287,292
MS CARD mnemonic, 2
I-L-activators, 296, 412
I-L-reeeptor. 302
Mucosal epithelium, regeneration, 360
Mullerian inhibiting factor (MIF), 229
Multiple myeloma, 378
Multiple sclerosis, 57
Mumps, 185, 188
Munchhausen's syndrome, 110
Mural infarct, 384
Muscarinic receptors, 274, 280
schizophrenia and, 88
Muscle
extrafusal versus intrafusal fibers, 51
isotonic contraction, 230
red, 269
skeletal. See Skeletal muscle
smooth, 62
histological features, 261
regeneration, 360
weakness, contralateral versus ipsilateral.
56
white, 214
Muscle phosphorylase deficiency, 321
Muscle spindles, 47
Muscle tension, passive, 270
Muscular dystrophy, 402
I>uchenne, 328, 374
Musculocutaneous nerve, 8
Musculophrenic artery, 14
Mutations, types, 132
Myasthenia gravis, 208, 319, 336, 373
Mycobacterium leprae, 171
Mycobacterium marinum, 184
Mycoplasma, 182
Mycoplasma pneurrwniae, 354
Mycosis fungoides, 369
Myelin, 66
Myelination, 256
Myelofibrosis, with myeloid metaplasia,
330
Myelogenous leukemia, chronic, 351, 376,
406
Myeloma, multiple, 378
Myeloperoxidase, 364
Myeloschisis, 41
Myocardial infarction, aeute, diagnosis, 344
Myocarditis, 397
Myocardium, 62
histological features, 261
regeneration, 360
Myotactic reflex, 59
Nasopharynx, 13
epithelial cell lining, 66
sensory innervation, 22
Native Americans, suicide rate, 81
Natural killer cells, markers, 195
NAVEL mnemonic. 6
Necatoramericanus,186
Necrophilia, 123
Necrosis, 396
acute tubular, 392
avascular, bone, 344
femoral head, 367
papillary, 392
types, 371
Nedocromil,282
Nef gene, 190
Negative correlation, 83
Negative reinforcement, 98
Negative selection, 203
Negatively skewed distribution, 114
Negri bodies, 186
Neisseria gonorrhea, 177, 311
conjunctivitis. 175
Neisseria meningUides, 181
vaccine, 178
Neologism, 87
Neomycin, 290
Neonate. See also Infant
bowel obstruction, 392
cause of death, 393
meningitis, 393
physiologic jaundice, 383
septicemia, 393
visual preferences, 92
Neoplasia, gestational trophoblastic, 27
Nephritic disease, immunofluorescent
staining, 332
Nephritic syndrome, 392
Nephroblastoma,399
Nephron
cortical, 245
JG cells, 69, 74
osmolarity, 255
PCT segment, 72
Nephrotic syndrome, 326, 391
Nephrotoxic oxylate stones, 152
Nerve lesions, lower extremity, 20
Neural tube
defeets, 159
formation, 35
Neuraminidase enzymes, 188
NADPH oxidase deficiency, 208, 310
Nafcillin,283
Naked viruses, 188
Naloxone, 104
N altrexone, 104
Naphthylamine, cancer associated with,
328
Narcissistic defense mechanisms, 118
N arcissistie personality disorder, 89
Narcoleptic tetrad, 97
Nasal hemianopsia, right, 50
N asogastric tube feeding, 401
Neuroblastoma, 319
Neuroectodermal tumor, primitive, 346
Neurofibrillary tangles, 81, 388
Neurofibromatosis
type 1, 342, 345, 407
type 2, 368, 407
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, 293
Neuroleptics, 100, 124
Neuromuscular junction, 242
Neuropsychologic test, 100
Neurosyphilis. Argyll Robertson pupils, 47
Neurotransmitters
brain, most common, 402
excitatory, 258
by site, 255
Neurovascular bundle, 19
Neutrophils
chemotactic factors, 341
hypersegmented, 353, 359
polymorphonuclear, 46
Nevirapine,109
Nevus, benign, 354
Newborn. See Neonate
Niacin deficiency, 127,409
Nickel, cancer associated with, 328
Niclosamide, 304
Nicotine, 112
Nicotinic acid, 287
Nicotinic receptors, 274
Niemann-Pick disease, 156,376,384,407
Nightterrors,117
Nightmares, 79
Nigrostriatal pathways, 122
Nimodipine,291
Nissl substances, 70
Nitrates, 297, 411
Nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test
(NBT), 190
Nitrofurantoin, 276
Nitrogen
balance, 138
excess, elimination, 154
Nitroprusside, 305
Nitrosamines, cancer associated with, 328
N itrosoureas, 289
Nitrous oxide, occupational exposure, 412
N-myc oncogene, 385
Nocardia asteroides, 174
Nodes of Ranvier, 239
Nodular melanoma, 369
Nodular sclerosis, 339
Nominal scale, 82
NonoHodgkin lymphoma, 399, 405
Nom-apid eye movement (NREM) sleep,
88,104
Nonsense mutation, 132
Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs
(NSAlDs),295
Nonverbal communication, 108
Norepinephrine, 236,255,279
in bipolar disorder, 99
and blood pressure, 226
in depression, 98
effects on ventricular pacemaker cell,
210
synthesis, 215
Norm reference, 83
Normal pressure hydrocephalus, 110
Normochromic normocytic anemia, 328
Normochromic normocytic leukemia, 384
Northern blot, 139
Norwalk agent, 174
Notochord, 28, 35
NPH (neutral protamine Hagedorn) in-
sulin,277,279
NREM sleep, 88, 104
Nucleolus, 64
Nucleus, 68
Nucleus ambiguus, unilateral lesion, 60
Nucleus pulposus, 21
Null hypothesis, 83
Nystagmus, 49, 55
Oat cell carcinoma, 320
Obsessive-compulsive disorder, 87
Obturator nerve, 3, 19
motor loss assodated with, 20
Ocdpitallobe
functions, 112
lesions, 119
Ocular lesions, 50, 51
Ocular muscles, 4-5
Odds ratio, 107
Oedipus complex, 100
Office visit, most common cause, 404
Olanzapine, 298
Oligodendrocytes, 66
Oligodendroglioma, 353
Omega-3 fatty adds, 151
Omphalocele, 34
Oncogenes, 385-386
Oncotic pressure, 219, 246
One-way ANOV A, 95
Onion skinning, 368
Oocyte, 30
Oogonia, 27
Open-ended questions, 84
Operant conditioning, 92, 98, 116
Operon, 150
Ophthalmic artery, 10, 57
Opioid(s)
antidote, 411
contraindications, 285
overdose, 412
side effects, 276, 277, 412
Opioid reeeptors, presynaptic, 282
Opsonins, 370
Opsonization, 196
Opsonizing factors, 194, 202
Optic canal, 18
Optic chiasm
lesion, 50
right lateral compression, 50
Optic disk, 14
Optic nerve lesion, left, 50
Optic radiations, left Meyer's loop lesion, 50
Oral contraceptives, 292
Orbitomedial frontal lobe lesions, 119
Ordinal scale, 90
Organophosphates, antidote, 294, 411
Ornithine transcarbamoylase defidency,
145
Oropharynx, sensory innervation, 22
Orotic acid, 136
Otphan Annie cells, 388
Oseltamivir, 287
Osler nodes, 376
Osmolarity,414
effective, 251
extracellular fluid, 258
and intracellular fiuid volume, 232
nephron, 255
Osmosis, 238
Osmotic diuretics, 286
Osmotic gradient, 73
Osteitis deformans, 331
Osteitis fibrosa cystica, 321
Osteoarthritis, 358
Osteoblasts, 254, 263, 313
regeneration, 360
Osteocaldn, 322
Osteoclastoma, 374
Osteoclasts, 73, 378
Osteocyte, 238
Osteogenesis imperlea:a, 313, 381
type Ilo 366
Osteomalada, 157, 352, 359
Osteomyelitis, 321
pyogenic, 393
Osteopetrosis, 322, 338
Osteosarcoma, 312, 329, 375
Otic ganglion, 58
Otitis media, 393
OTL mnemonic, 297
Ovariancancer,320,399,400
Ovarian disease, polycystic, 343
Ovarian ligament, 18
Ovarian tumor
benign, 400
germ cell, 401
granulosa cell, 329
stromal, 400
Ovulation, 33,69, 74, 222,239,240,245
Oxadllin, 283
Oxazepam, 297
B-Oxidation, 154
Oxidizing reactions, 204
Oxygen
as diffusion-limited gas, 257
driving force across alveolar membrane,
248
partial pressure
alveolar, 225
arterial, ventilation and, 232
in fetal drculation, 220
aortic,215
lowest resting, 266
Oxygen affinity, 259
Oxygen content
in anemia, 235
room air, 266
Oxygen delivery, 263
Oxygen:blood ratio, 238
Oxygen-derived £Tee radicals, 372
Oxygen-hemoglobin binding sites,
227-228,268
Oxygen-hemoglobin dissodation curve
in CO poisoning, 247
shift to right, 211
Oxylate stones, nephrotoxic, 152
Oxytocin, 70, 256, 265
P (probability) value, 89. 122
P wave, 265
PI protein, 167
P24 protein, 170
p50 value, 253
p53 gene, 345
Paclitaxel, 289
Paget disease, 331
of breast, 339
PAH (para-aminohippurate) clearance, 247
Palatoglossus muscle, innervation, 12
Palindrome, 157
Palivizumab, 279
Palmar arches, 18
Palmar interosseus, 23
Palmitate, 139
PAM SMIDT mnemonic, 339
Pancreas
acini cells, 73
duct cells, 73
islet cells, 229. 235
regeneration, 359
Pancreatic amylase, 215
Pancreatic cancer, 320,398
Pancreatic 8-cell tumor, 323
Pancreatic insufficiency, 317
Pancreatic islet cell tumor, 398
Pancreatitis
chronic, 389
infectious, 390
Paneth cells, 73
Panhypopituitarism, 392
Panic attacks, 121
Panic disorder, 102
Pantothenic add, 409
Papain, antibody cleavage with, 199
Papez circuit of limbic system, 43
Papillae
drcumvallate, 69
filiform, 71
fungiform, 64
Papillary carcinoma of thyroid, 370
Papillary necrosis, 392
Papilloma, intraductal, 342
Papillomavirus. See Human papilloma virus
(HPV) infection
Papovavirus, 180
Papule, 370
Paracortex, 203
Paradoxic embolism, 377
Parafollicular cells, 68
Parallel circuit, 249, 258
Paramedian pontine reticular formation, 54
Paramesonephric duct, 32
Paramyxovirus, 176
Paranoid personality, 107
Paranoid schizophrenia, 10 1, 124
Paraphilia, 123
Parasites, 173
helminthic, 396
Parathyroid gland
ehief cells, 236
disorders, 217
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), 155, 224
abnormalities. See Hyperparathyroidism;
Hypoparathyroidism
release, 217
renal effects, 227, 270
Parietal cells, 68
stimulation, 269
Parietal lobe
dominant, lesions, 119
functions. III
nondominant, lesions, 119
postcentral gyrus, 52
Parietolaterallymphocyte sheath (PALS),
64
Parkinson's disease, 48-49, 121
ACh function, 309
substantia nigra in, 95
Parotid duct, 2
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, 313
Partial thromboplastin time, 349
Parvo
rus, 178, 180
Parvovirus B-19, 185,368
Passive-aggressive, 106
Pasteurella, 188
Pasteurella multocida, 186
Patau syndrome, 386, 407
Patent duetus arteriosus, 25, 396
Patent processus vaginalis, 33
Patent urachus, 33
Pearson correlation, 124
Peau d'orange, 374
Pectoralis major muscle, 5
Pedophilia, 123
Pellagra, 127
PeMc organs, lymphatic drainage, 22
Pelvic splanchnics, 12, 49, 59
Penicillin
broad-spectrum, 307
penicillinase-resistant, 283
Penicillin G, 290
Penicillin V, 296
Penile urethra, 63
PentoxifYlline, 302-303
Pepsin, 255
antibody cleavage with, 199
Pepsinogen, 68
Peptic ulcer disease, 398
Pergolide,291
Pericardium, fibrous, 6
Perilymph, 39
Peripheral white pulp of spleen, 67
Penrnciousanemia.196,348
Peroxidase, 237
Persistent truncus arteriosus, 35
Personality disorders
antisocial, 91
cluster A, 106-107
cluster B, 89
cluster C, 87
Pertussis toxin, 146
Pes anserinus, 19
Peutz-Jegherssyndrome, 383
Peyer's patches, 70, 72
pH, acidic, 161
Phagocytic cell, bone marrow maturation
time, 192
Phagoeytosis, 201
Phallic stage, 85
Phallus, 24. 31, 32
Pharmacology equations, 417
Pharyngeal arches, cranial nerves associ-
ated with, 28
Pharyngeal fistula, 29
Pharyngeal muscles, innervation, 19
Pharyngeal pouches, structures derived
from, 29
Phenobarbitals, overdose, 277, 279, 412
Phenoxybenzamine, 288
Phentolamine, 288
Phenylalanine, 155
Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency, 137
Phenylephrine, 278
Phenylketonuria (PKU), 137,344
Phenytoin, 283, 306
Pheoehromocytoma, 311, 317, 326
Phobia
open spaces, 80
school, 95
specific, 389
Phosphatidic acid, 157
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase
(PEPCK), 147
Phosphofructokinase-l (PFK-l), 135 Pleural tap. landmarks, 19
3-Phosphoglycerate kinase, 148 Plummer-Vinson syndrome, 356
Phospholipids, 157 Pne'trTWCOCCUS (Streptococcus pneul1w-
hydrophobic end of, 214 niae), 174, 176
Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate aminotrans- Pneumoconiosis, 337--338
Ferase, 139, 147 nonorganic,391
Phototherapy, 383 Pneumoc1Jslie carinii, 174
Phrenic nerve, 17 Pneumocytes
Physiologic antagonism, 308 type I, 69
Physiologic dead space, 210 type II, 70
Physiologic jaundice of newborns. 383 Pneumonia
pI (isoelectric point), 129 lobar, 391
Pia mater, 22 most common causes, 395
Piaget's stages of cognitive development, Pneumotaxic center. 265
79 Pneumothorax, 331
Pick's disease, 104 spontaneous. 391
Picornavirus. 168 Pol gene, 172
Pigmentation, baeteria associated with, 179 Polio vaccine, 181
Pigmented gallstones, 332 Polio virus, 187
Pimozide, 274 Poliomyelitis, 46
Pindolol, 278 Polyarteritis nodosa, 312
Pineal gland, 61 Polvcistronic mRNA, 128
Pinealocytes, hormones produced by, 61 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, cancer
Pinworm, 167 associated with, 328
Pirenzepine, 297 Polycystic kidney disease
Pituitary adenoma, 399 adult, 380
Pituitary gland of childhood, 312
anterior, hormones, 243 Polycystic ovary disease, 343
posterior, 236 Polycythemia vera, 314
Pituitary hypogonadism, 254 Polymerase chain reaction (PeR), 128
Pituitary tumor, 399 Polymorphonuclear leukocytes, 209
pK, 158 Polymorphonuclear neutrophils, 46
Placenta, 224 Polyposis, familial, adult, 406
Plaeental alkaline phosphatase, 320, 363 Polyposis coli, familial, 329
Plaque Polysomes, 74
atherosclerotic, in abdominal aorta, 403 free, 68
senile, 81, 389 membrane-associated,68
Plasma, oncotic pressure, 219 Polyuria, 237
plasma cell, 192,206 Pompe's disease, 150, 321
life expectancy, 194 Pons
Plasma concentration, volume of distribu- cranial nerves arising from, 44
tion and, 285 functions, 111
Plasma level, at steady state, 305 Pontine reticular formation, paramedian,
Plasmin, 336 54
Plasrrwdium falciparum, 165, 182 Pontocerebellar angle syndrome, 36
Plasrrwdium malariae, 166, 179, 182 Pontomedullary lesions, cranial nerves aF-
Plasrrwdium ovale, 166 fected, 37
Plasmodium spp., 171, 172, 177 Popliteus muscle, 19
Plaslrwdium vivax, 166, 182 Porcelain gallbladder, 338
Platelet aggregating factors, 341 Porphyria, aeute intermittent. 140
Pleura, visceral, 14 Portal hypertension, 16, 331
Portal tract of liver lobule. 65
Portal vein, 6
Positive eorrelation, 83
Positive predictive value, 109
Positive reinforcement, 98
Positive sense RNA, 175, 187
Positively skewed distribution, 97
Postcentral gyrus of parietal lobe, 52
Postductal coarctation of aorta, 311
Posterior crieoarytenoid muscles, 2
Posterior cruciate ligament, 23
Posterior hypothalamic zones, 40
Posterior inferior cerebellar artery, 46
Postgangnonic cell bodies, 39
Postganglionic parasympathetic ganglia, 58
Postganglionic sympathetic ganglia, 59
Postinfectious glomerulonephritis, 332, 386
Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, 360,
373
Posttranscriptional modifications, 126
Posttranslational modifications, 66
Posttraumatic stress disorder, 107
Potassium, effeets on cell membrane, 414
Potassium channel(s)
ungated, 257
voltage-gated, 231, 257
Potassium channel blockers, 280
Potassium-sparing diuretics, 286
Potency, 291
Pott disease, 323
Pott facies. 326
Power, statistical, 125
Po
rus, 163. 165. 180, 184
PPD skin test, 166
positive, size o£ 185
PR interval, 264
PraderoWilli syndrome, 332
Pralidoxime (2-PAM), 294
Precipitin test, 207
Predictive value, positive, 109
Prefrontal eortex, 55
dorsal, lesions, 119
Preganglionic cell bodies, 35
Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers, 49,
52,59
arising from EdingeroWestphal nucleus,
57,60
Preganglionic sympathetic fibers, 16, 60-61
Preganglionic sympathetic neurons, 58
Pregnaney
ectopic
abdominal, 403
most eommon site. 403
heparin in, 275
school dropout and, 97
Preload, 215, 222, 237
Premature ejaculation, 79, 100
Premotor eortex, 47
Preoperational stage of eognitive develop-
ment, 79
Preoptic area of hypothalamus, 50
Preotic somites, 29
Prepatellar bursa, 14
Prevalence, 86. 113,122,124
duration and, 79
Priapism, trazodone-induced, 92
Primary biliary cirrhosis, 317
Primary follicle
eortex, 206
spleen, 194
Primary sclerosing cholangitis, 330
Primase, 130
Primitive atrium, 30
Primitive gut, 25
rotation, 33
Primitive neuroectodermal tumor. 346
Primitive streak, 34
Primitive ventricle, 30
Primordial germ cells, 25
migration, 34
Prinzmetal variant angina, 316
Prion disease, 169
Probability, 120. 125
Probenecid, 129, 298
Procainamide, 296, 306
Proeessus vaginalis, patent, 33
Prochordal plate, 34
Prodrugs, 298
Proencephalon, 26
Profundus femoris artery, 9
Progesterone, thermogenic aetivities, 227
Progestin, 301
plus estrogen, 284
Programmed cell death, 365
Progressive multifocalleukoencephalopa-
thy, lR8, 360
Projeetion, 118
Projeetive drawing, 81
Projeetive test, 115
Prokaryotes, 127, 131
elongation, 142
ribosomes, 151
start codon, 161
Prolactin, 105, 122,224
dopamine and, 305
Proline, 146
Prolyl hydroxylase, 159
Promoter, 134
Promyelocytic (M3) leukemia, 373, 406
Pro-opiomelanoeortin (POMC), 267
Propionic acid, 140
Propionyl coenzyme A, 139
Propionyl coenzyme A carboxylase, 142
Propofol, 308
Proportionate mortality rate, 108
Propranolol, 285, 291
Proprioception testing, 45
Propylthiouracil (PTU), 305
Prostaglandin D2' 337
Prostaglandin E, 329
Prostaglandin El' 281
Prostaglandin E 2 , 294, 337
Prostaglandin F 2' 337
Prostaglandin F 2a' 294
Prostaglandin 1 2 , 274, 281. 337
Prostate-specific antigen test (PSA), 320
Prostatic aeid phosphatase, 320
Prostatic carcinoma, 320, 364, 375
Prostatic hypeIplasia, benign, 312, 313, 401
Protamine sulfate, 305
Protamine zine insulin, 279
Protein
binding, and volume of distribution, 285
metabolism, 157
rate of reaetion ruJes, 413
storage, and insulin, 234
transport, aetive, 253
Protein A, 188
Protein C deficiency, 288
Protein pump inhibitors. 295
Protein-mediated transportation, 229
Proteoglycans, 74
Proteus spp., 170, 181
Prothrombin time. 349
Proto-oneogenes, 313
Proud flesh. 333
Proximal eonvoluted tubule, 72
luminal fluid changes, 235
Psammoma bodies, 349
Pseudogout.363.373,402
Pseudohermaphrodism
female, 373
male, 358
Pseudohypertrophy, call 387
Pseudohyphae,164
Pseudomembranous eolitis, 370
Pseudomembranous exudate, 340
Pseudonwnas aeruginosa, 163. 188
pigmentation, 179
PseudopaJisades. 389
Pseudorosettes, 388
Psoas major, 23
Psoriasis, 316-317
Psychiatric i1lness, 389
after childbirth, 114
Psychosexual development, latency stage,
100
Psychotie disorder, brief, 108
Pterygopalatine ganglion, 58
Ptosis, in Horner's syndrome, 38
Pubis bone, 4
Puboreetalis muscle, 21
Pulmonary arteries, 19
occlusion, 264
Pulmonary blood flow, 211
Pulmonary embolism, 314, 353
Pulmonary equations and formulas, 415
Pulmonary hypertension, in ehildren, 391
Pulmonary infaretion. 379
Pulmonary shunt, 247
Pulmonary vein, 13
Pulse pressure, 262
eompliance and, 269
Punishment, 98
Pupil(s)
afferent versus efferent defeet, 1
Argyll Robertson, 13, 47
eonstriction, 57
tonic, 7
Purine bases, 142
Purine nucleoside phosphorylase defi-
ciency, 140, 14R
Purine ring, 137
Purine salvage pathway, 148-149
Purkinje cells, 41, 49, 255
Purulent exudate, 340
Pyelonephritis, 321,366,396
Pygmalion effect, 113
Pyloric stenosis, 381
hypertrophic. 32
Pyocyanin pigmentation, bacteria associ-
ated with. 179
Pyogenic osteomyelitis, 393, 402
Pyrantel pamoate. 301
Pyrido
ne,151,284,409
deficiency, 156, 160, 356, 410
Pyrimidine bases, 146, 149
Pyruvate carboxylase, 131, 154
Pyruvate dehydrogenase, 141. 151
inhibition, 127
Pyruvate kinase. 148
QRS eomplex, 265
Quadrate liver lobe, 4
Quaternary structure, 134
Quellung reactive test, 171
Questions, open-ended versus closed-
ended, 84
Quinolones, 276
Rabies virus, 172, 176, 186
Radial artery, 18
Radial branch, posterior brachial plexus, 3
Radial immunodiffusion (RID) test, 207
Radial nerve, 8
Radiography
Codman triangle, 388
soap bubble appearance, 388
Rag doll appearance, 38
Ralo
fene, 276
Range, 101
Raphe nuclei, 60
Rapid cycling bipolar disorder, 109
Rapid eye movement. See REM entries
Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis,
356
Rate
false-positive, 104
specific, 100
standardized, 87
Rate of reaction rules, proteins and en-
zymes, 413
Rathke's pouch, 58
Ratio scale, 90
Rationalization, 105
Raynaud's phenomenon, 342
ReabsOlption, 236
Reaction formation, 106
Recall bias, 99
Receptive aphasia, 54
Rectal bleeding, 392
Rectal sling, 21
Recurrent laryngeal nerve, 3, 24
right, 3
Red blood cell(s)
anaerobic metabolism, 137
glycolysis, 144
in urine, 387
Red blood cell casts, in urine, 387
Red blood cell distribution width index
(RDW), 377
Red blood cell indices, 377
Red muscle, 269
Red pigmentation, bacteria associated with,
179
Red pulp of spleen, 71
5-a-Reductase deficiency, 25
Reduviid bug, 187
Reed-Sternberg cells, 376, 388
Refractory period
absolute, 225
relative, 216
Regeneration, types, 359-360
Regression, 78
Reinforcement. 87
schedules, 84-85
types, 98
Reinke crystals, 388
Reiter syndrome, 311, 332
Relative refractory period, 216
Relative risk, 107
Reliability, test, 77, 84
Religion, refusal of treatment and, 113
REM latency, 93
REM sleep, 110
biochemical trigger, 81
deprivation, 87
EEG pattern, 104
timing, 81
Renal. See also Kidney
Renal arterioles, 251
Renal calculi, 181. 397
Renal cell carcinoma, 338, 398
Renal circulation, 230, 265
Renal eompensation mechanisms
acidosis, 229
alkalosis, 220, 244
Renal epithelial casts, in urine, 387
Renal equations and formulas, 416
Renal failure, acute, 392
Renal transplantation
meningitis in, 393
rejeetion, 380-381
Renal tubular reabsOlption, 263
Renin, 63, 69, 268
Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, 253
Renshaw neuron, 234
Reovirus, 168, 182
RepagOnide, 299
Repolarization, ventricular, 211
Reportable disease, most eommon, 404
Repression, 106
Reproductive cycle, female, 72, 74
ReseIpine, 286
Residual volume, 247
Resistance
airway, 256
in parallel circuit, 258
in series circuit, 223, 238
vessel length and, 248
vessel radius and, 219, 226
viscosity and, 257
Resistance system
high, 216
low, 266
Respiratory acidosis, 265
metabolic acidosis with, 213
Respiratory alkalosis, 216
Respiratory compensation mechanisms,
metabolic acidosis, 256
Respiratory cycle, 232
Respiratory distress syndrome, 27, 350
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 176
Respiratory system
eonducting portion, 72
embryology, 33
Respiratory volume (RV), 234, 243
Resting cell membrane potential, 226
Restriction endonucleases, 141
Restrictive cardiomyopathy, 390
Ret oneogene, 385
Reticular endothelial system (RES), 148
Reticular formation, paramedian pontine,
54
Reticulocyte, 378
Retina, cherry red spots, 376
Retinoblastoma, familial, 312
Retroperitoneal organs, 17
Reverse transcriptase, 178, 183
Reverse transcription, 139
Reye's syndrome, 181,365
Rhabdomyoma, 311
Rhabdovirus, 176, 181
Rheumatic fever, 311, 352
Aschoff bodies of, 341
Jones criteria, 350, 369
valve abnormality, 397
Rheumatoid arthritis, 376
Rhinovirus, 185
Rhodopsin, 157
RhoGAM,206
Rho-immunoglobulin, 296
Rhombencephalon, 26
Rib(s)
articulations with vertebrae, 16
notching, 384
Ribavirin, 290
Riboflavin deficiency, 142,408
Ribonucleic acid. See RNA
Ribonucleotide reductase, 131, 140
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA), 64, 150
Ribosomal subunits, 64, 74
Ribosomes, prokaryotes, 151
Ribozymes, 150
Rickets, 157,314
Riedel thyroiditis, 310
Rifampin, 296, 297
Right braehiocephalic artery, 3
Right calcarine eortex lesion, 50
Right cerebral cortex lesion, 56
Right eolic flexure, 19
Right eoronary artery, 20
Right gonadal vein, 21
Right lateral geniculate body lesion, 50
Right medial longitudinal fasciculus lesion,
56
Right nasal hemianopsia, 50
Right recurrent laryngeal nerve, 3
Right subclavian artery, 16
Right umbilical artery, 27
Right-sided vaJves, 268
Right-to-Ieft shunts, 349
Risk
attributable, 107
relative, 107
Risperidone, 296
Ristocetin, 328
Ritodrine, 282
Rituximab, 286
RNA
heterogenous nuclear, 150
hydroxyl end of, 133
messenger, 128, 150
positive sense, 175, 187
ribosomal, 64, 150
subtypes, 150
RNA polymerases, 154
eukaryotic, 161
RNA viruses
naked, 168
negative sense, 181
segmented, 182
Rochalimaea quintana, 175
Rods, 61
Roe v. Wade, 92
Romberg sign, 38, 4,5
Room air, m:ygen content, 266
Rorschach inkblot test, 115
Roseola, 171
Rotator cuff muscles, 7
Rotavirus, 167
Roth spots, 312, 376
Rotor syndrome, 132, 364
Round ligament, 18
RU 486,292
Rube1!a syndrome, eongenitaL 179
Rubeola, 176, 177
Russell bodies, 387
S phase of cell cycle, 131, 137
Sl nuclease, 146
Saccule, 39, 60
Sacral curvature, 9
Saeral vertebrae, spinal nerves associated
with, 44
Saerococcygeal teratoma, 34
Sadism, 123
Salicylate overdose, 379
Saliva. 228
functions, 212
tonicity, 236
Salk polio vaccine, 181
Salmeterol, 305
Salnwnella, 186
Salmonella typhi, 174
Salpingitis, 355
Saltatoryeonduetion,74
SAM (S-adenosylmethionine), 151
Sample size, and chanee of error, 88
Sandfly,167
Sanity, 118
Sarcoidosis, 318
Sarcoplasmic reticulum, 71
Satiety center, 49
Sawtooth waves, 104
Scapula. winged, 21
Scar, hypertrophic, 374
Scarpa's fascia, 14
Scavenger receptor (SR-Bl), 144
Schatzki ring, 349
Schiller-Duval bodies, 388
Sehistocytes. 327
Schistosoma, 169
Schistosoma haematobiu11l, 183, 340
Sehizoid personality, 107
Schizophrenia, 88, 1m, 124
Schiwtypal personality, 106
School dropout, and pregnancy, 97
School phobia, 95
Schwarm cells, 66
Schwannoma, 347
Sciatic nerve, motor loss associated with, 20
SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency
disease), 148,324,361,408
Sclera, blue, 313
Scleroderma, 315, 355
Sclerosing cholangitis. primary, 330
Sclerosis
amyotrophic lateral. 54
multiple, 57
nodular, 339
Scrofula, 356
Scrotal cancer, 348
Seasonal affective disorder, 115
Sebaceous glands, 72
Second aortic arch, structures derived
from, 2
Secretin, 229
Secretion, net, 242
Seleetion bias. 93
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SS-
Rls). 122
Selegiline, 286, 297, 301
Selenium (Se), 409
Semen, movement to ejaculatory ducts,
259
Semicircular canal, 39
Semicircular duct, 39
Seminoma, 320, 333, 363
Semipermeable membrane, 237
Senile plaques, 81, 389
Sensitivity, 92
Sensory neuron cell bodies, 40-41
Separation, stages, 91
Separation anxiety, 82
Septal defects, membranous, 29
Septicemia, neonatal, 393
Series circuit, 223, 238, 264
Serocystadenocarcinoma, 321
Serotonergic crisis, 281
Serotonin, 61, 124, 255
Serotonin receptors, 298
Serotonin reuptake inhibitors, selective, 122
Serotonin syndrome, 76
Scrous exudate, 340
Saratia, pigmentation, 179
Serratus anterior muscle, 8
Sertoli cell(s), 73, 74
hormones, 210
stimulation. 247
Sertoli cell tumor, 220
Sex chromosomes. most eommon disorder,
406
Sexual abuse, 95, 108, 404
Sexual aversion disorder, 88
Se>alal desire disorder, hypoactive, 80
Sexual periods, refractory, 110
Sexually transmitted disease, most com-
mon, 404
Shaken baby syndrome, 89
Shaping, 116
Sheehan syndrome, 355
Shiga toxin, 183
Shigella, 164
Shine-Dalgarno sequence, 126, 158
Short-chain fatty acids, 129,239
Shoulder, bony articulations, 11
Shunts (cardiae)
left -to-right. 336
right-to-Ieft, 349
Sickle cell anemia, 362, 369
Sickle B-globin allele, 142
Sideroblastic anemia, 356, 367
Sigma factor, 148
Signaling mechanisms, 288
Signet ring cells, 387
Silent mutation, 132
Silicosis, 337, 386
Simian hand, 21
Simon focus, 341
Simple diffusion, 241, 260
Single-strand DNA binding protein, 156
Sinoatrial node, 241
innervation, 210
Sinus reflex, 21
Sinus venosus, 30
Sinusitis, 393
Sipple syndrome, 323
Sis oneogene, 386
SITS mnemonic, 7
Sixth aortic arch, structures derived from, 2
Sjogren's syndrome, 344, 379
Skeletal muscle, 61, 62
contraction, 232, 260
eross-bridge cycling, 228
histological features, 261
regeneration, 359
relaxation, 241
V,""'" 243
Skewed distribution
negatively, 114
positively, 97
Skin
sympathetic stimulation, 240
thick, 67
Skin cancer. 403
squamous eell, 341, 355
Sleep
abnormalities, in depression, 97
alcohol intoxication and, 102
barbiturate effects on, 76
benzodiazepines and, 113
deprivation, 97
NREM, 88, 104
pituitary hormones and. 98
prolactin and, 122
recovered, 114
REM. See REM sleep
Sleep latency, 98
Sleep spindles, 104
Sleep stage, 114
bruxism and, 109
duration. age and, 79-80
ease of arousal and, 81, 93
EEG patterns, 104
enuresis and, 76
GH release and, 120
growth hormone secretion and. 224
hCG output and, 85
night terrors and, 117
nightmares and, 79
somnambulism and, 113
Sleeping sickness, African, 178
Small cardiac vein. 10
Small cell carcinoma, 320
Small intestine. transit time, 227
Small nuclear RNA (snRNA), 150
Smallpox, 167, 173
Smiling, development, 84
Smoking, 339, 342
Smooth endoplasmic retieulum (SER), 65.
134
Smooth muscle, 62
histological features, 261
regeneration, 360
Soap bubble appearance on radiography,
388
Sodium, effects on cell membrane, 414
Sodium channel(s), voltageogated, 236, 257
Sodium channel blockers, 290
Sodium chloride, 241
Soft palate, ipsilateral paralysis. 60
Soft palate muscles, innervation, 13
Solitary nucleus, 35
Solute concentration, and water How, 270
Somatization, 79
Somatization disorder, 94
Somatoform disorders, 77, 94-95
Somatoform pain disorder, 94-95
Somatomedins, 243, 248
Somatosensory association cortex, 47
Somatosensory eortex, primary, 47
Somatostatin, 235
Somites, 34
Somnambulism, 113
Sorbitol, 129
Sound waves, coehlea stimulation, 49
Southern blot, 139
Spearmaneorrelation,77
Specific phobia, 389
Specificity, 79
Spectinomycin, 275
Sperm
postejaculation, 253
site of maturation, 72
Spermatid, 65
Spermatocyte, 65
Spermatogonia, 65
Spermatogonium, 30
Spherocytosis, hereditary, 334
Sphingomyelin, 140, 152
Sphingomyelinase deficiency, 156
Sphingosine, 133
Spina bifida, forms, 41-42
Spina bifida occulta, 42
Spinal eord
hemisection, 53
intermediate zone, 58
intramedullary tumor, 402
subaeute eombined degeneration, 39,
356
Spinal nerves, 44
fibers, 53
number of pairs, 13
pelvic splanchnic, 12
Spinal trigeminal nucleus, 37
Spinocerebellar tract, 58
Spinothalamic sensory system, 40
Spinothalamic tract, 52
lesion, 52, 53
Spinous process, prominent, 7
Spironolactone, 275, 300, 301
Spleen, 34
B-ceH area (primary follicle), 194
peripheral white pulp of, 67
red pulp of, 71, 197
T-eell area (PALS), 64,197
Splenic vein, 3, 6
Splenomegaly, 375
Splitting, 118
Spondylitis, ankylosing, 320
Sporothrix schenckii, 167
Sporozoites, 177
Spousal abuse, 88
Squamous cell carcinoma, 328
HPV infection and, 322
lung, 344
skin, 341, 355
Staghorn renal calculi, 181
Standard deviation, and chance of error, 88
Standardized rate, 87
Stanford-Binet Scale, 91
Stapedius muscle, 6, 59
Staphylocoecus, 170
Staphylocoecus aureus, 164, 171, 188
pigmentation, 179
Starry sky pattern, 388
STARS mnemonic, 3
Start codon, 161
Statins, 293
Steady state
infusion rate and, 302
mathematical versus clinical, 290
plasma level at, 305
Stein-Leventhal syndrome, 343
Stensen's duct, 2
Stereobilin, 247
Stereocilia, 66
Steroids, 302
anabolic, 237
production, 266
urinary 17-0H, 212
Stevens-Johnson syndrome, 352
Stibogluconate, 302
Stimulus control, 116
Stomach cancer, 314, 320, 328
Stranger anxiety, 91
Stratum eorneum, 71
Stratum granulosum, 73
Stratum lucidum, 70
Stratum spinosum, 69
Strawberry gallbladder, 364
Streaky ovaries, 388
Streptoeocci, 179
Streptococci infection
glomerulonephritis after, 360, 373
group A B-hemolytic, 311
Streptococcus agalaetiae, 174
Streptococcus faecalis, 175
Streptococcus pneurrwniae, 174, 176
Streptococcus pyogenes, 175, 177
Streptococcus virido1lS, 175, 11\9
Streptokinase, 282-283
Streptolysin 0, 177
Streptomycin, 155,283, 291, 306
Stress disorder, posttraumatic, 107
Stretch receptors, 271
arterial, 234
Stroke volume, 256
Stromal ovarian tumor, 400
Strongyloides stercoralis, 189
Struvite calculus, 352
Stylomastoid foramen, 18
Stylopharyngeus muscle, 19
Subaraehnoid hematoma, 23
Subarachnoid hemorrhage, 361
Subatmospheric pressure, 228, 234
Subclavian artery, 16, 59
Subclavian vein, 18
Subdural hematoma, 5
Subdural hemorrhage, 361
Sublimation, 110
Sublingual gland, 65
Submandibular ganglion, 58
Submandibular gland, 65
Subscapularis branches, posterior braehial
plexus, 3
Subscapularis muscle, 8
Substance P, 97
Substantia nigra, 55
in Parkinson's disease, 95
Substituted judgment, 80
Subthreshold potential, 244
Succinate dehydrogenase, 131, 153
Succinyl CoA, 155, 157
Succinyl CoA acetoacetyl CoA transferase,
138
Snccinyl CoA synthetase, 131, 137
Succinylcholine, 285
and halothane, 285
Suckling, effects on mother. 220---221
Sucralfate, 283
Sudden cardiac death, 334, 390
Suicidal ideation, 81
Suicide, 113
alcoholism and, 101
female physicians, 108
maleJemale ratio, 120
Native Americans, 81
primary risk factor, 80
risk factors, 114
Sulcus of Rolando, 47
Sulfonamides, 287, 293
Sumatriptan, 283
Sunlight, UVB, 310
Superego, 86, 94
Superficial peroneal nerve, 3
Superior cerebellar peduncle, 38
Superior eolliculus, 43
Superior epigastric artery, 14
Superior gluteal nerve, motor loss associ-
ated with, 20
Superior laryngeal nerve, 24
Superior mesenteric artery, branches, 12
Superior mesenteric ganglia, 59
Superior mesenteric vein, 6
Superior oblique muscle, 4
Superior olivary nucleus, 52
Superior rectus muscle, 4
Superior vena cava, 19
Superoxide dismutase, 143
Suppression, III
Suprachiasmatic nucleus, 40
Supracondylar fraeture, femur, 16
Supraoptic hypothalamic nuclei, 49
Suprascapular nerve, 7
Supraspinatus muscle, 7
Surface tension, 238
Surfactant, 70
deficiency, 27, 335
functions, 213,217
Surrogate criteria, 113
Swan-neck deformities, 312
Sweet taste, 69
Sympathetic chain ganglion, 60
Sympathetic tone, areas of, 303
Sympathetic vasodilation, 226-227
Syncytiotrophoblast. 70
Syphilis
spinal eord manifestations, 52
vasculitis, 347
Syringomyelia, 40
Systematic desensitization, 99
Systemic blood How, 211
Systemic lupus erythematosus, 372
cardiac pathology, 397
cause of death, 393
renal pathology, 397
Systole, 213, 232
Systolic interval, 215, 269
Systolic pressure, arterial, increased, 221
Systolic volume (SV), 415
T wave, 265
Tabes dorsalis, 52
Taenia saginata, 185
Taenia solium, 170
Takayasu arteritis, 362
Tamoxifen, 306
Tapeworms, 175
Tardive dyskinesia, 102
Target cell, 342
Taste sensation
anterior tongue, 5
posteriortongue, 10
Tat gene, 190
TATA box promoter, 131, 158
Tay-Sachs disease, 133. 156, 315. 376, 407
T-eell(s),347
antigens reeognized by, 203
CD markers, 191
cytotoxic, 193, 209
differentiation, 192,202
helper, 201, 203, 204, 207
maturation, 194
T-cell area
oflymph node, 203
of spleen, 64
T-cell immunodeficiency, selective, 140, 148
T -eellleukemia, adult, 349
T -eelllymphoma, cutaneous, 369
T-cell receptor, 405
TCR chains, 199, 205
Teenagers
maturation, 88
unwed mothers, 96
Teeth grinding, 109
Temazepam,297
Temperature regulation. hypothalamus. 40.
41
Temporal arteritis, 367
Temporal lobe
dominant, lesions, 119
fllllctions, 111
nondominant, lesions, 120
Tensor tympani, 59
Tensor veli palatine, 13
Teratoma, 317, 356
saerococcygeal, 34
Terbinafine,21\3
Terbutaline,282
Teres major muscle, 5
Terminal bronchioles, 227
Test
criterion-referenced, 109
reliability. 77, 84
validity, 86
Testicular cancer, risk faetors, 344
Testicular feminization syndrome, 33
Testicular germ cell tumors, nonseminoma-
tous, 320
Testicular tumor, 401
Testosterone, 66, 269
male development, 223
Test-retest reliability, 84
Tetanospasmin, 176
Tetany, 222
Tetracycline, 155,276,295,301
Tetralogy of F allot, 28, 355
Thalamic nuclei, 39
anterior, 57
based on input and output, 42-43
VPL. 59
Thalamus
funetion, 43
hypermyelination, 57
Thalassemia minor, 367
Theca cells, 64, 241
Thematic apperception test (TAT), 90
Therapeutic indices, 293
Theta waves, 104
Thiabendazole, 293
Thiamine, 138, 146, 161,409,410
Thiamine pyrophosphate, 128
Thiazide diuretics, 286, 298
Thick skin, 67
Thigh
anterior eompartment, 3, 9
medial compartment, 3
posterior eompartment, 3
Thiogalaetoside transacetylase, 152
6- Thioguanine, 289
Thiophorase, 138
Thioridazine, 287
Third aortic arch, structures derived from, 2
Thoracic curvature, 9
Thoracic splanchnics. 59, 60-61
Thoraeic vertebrae, 16
spinal nerves associated with. 44
Thoraeodorsal branch, posterior brachial
plexus, 3
Thoracodorsal nerve, 8
Threadworms, 189
Threonine, 155
Thromboangiitis obliterans, 354-355
Thrombosis, deep vein, 353
Thrombotic thromboeytopenic purpura,
353,365
Thromboxane A 2 , 281, 337, 347
Thrombus, 329
Thrush, 187
Thymidine, 149
Thymidylate synthase, 130, 144
Thymus gland, 67
in T-cell differentiation, 202
Thymus-independent antigen. 195
Thyroarytenoid muscles, function, 1
Thyroid adenoma, 399
Thyroid cancer, 399
medullary, 320, 349, 363
papillary, 370
Thyroid gland, 31
anatomy, 1
disorders, 218
size, 226
Thyroid hormones, 271
abnormal levels. See Hyperthyroidism;
Hypothyroidism
Thyroiditis
de Quervain, 318
Hashimoto's, 327
Riedel, 310
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). dur-
ing sleep, 98
Thyroxine (T4), 217. 226. 231. 232
Tibial nerve, 3, 18
motor loss associated with, 20
Ticlopidine,291
Tidal volume (V T ), 242
Tight jllllctions, 64, 71
Time of maximum eoncentration (T max ),
292
Timolol, 285
Tinea favosa (favus), 178
Tobramycin,291
Togavirus, 186
Tolcapone, 289
Tongue
anterior
general sensation, 14
taste sensation. 5
magenta, 142
posterior, taste sensation. 10
touch receptors, 71
Tongue muscles, innervation, 12
Tonicity, 414
Topoisomerase I (Relaxase), 126
Total body water, 218
Fat content and, 266
Total lung capacity (TLC), 234, 243
Total peripheral resistance (TIR), 244
Total ventilation, 220, 250
Tourette's syndrome, 95
Toxic dose (TDso>. 309
Toxoplasma gondii, 164, 187, 188
Toxoplasmosis, 322, 324
Traehea, bifurcation, 2]
Transaldolase, 155
Transeortical aphasia, 103
Transeortical apraxia, 44
Transcription, 68
definition, 144
reverse, 139
Transcription faetor 110, 129
Transfer RNA (tRNA), 150
a-l,6 Transferase, 135
Transference, 125
Transferrin. 314
Transient ischemic attack (TIA), 315
Trans1<etolase, 155
Translation, 140, 158
Translation enzymes, 135
Translocation, 13]
Transmembrane potential, 258
Transplantation, graft types, 202
Transport maximum (Tm) system, 222, 271
Transposition of the great vessels. 27
Transposons, 189
Transtentorial (uncal) herniation, 347
Transudate, causes, 356
Transudative edema, 325
Transverse abdominis muscle, 8
Transvestite fetishism, 77
Trazodone, 92
pharmacologic effects, 124
Treacher CoBins syndrome, 27
Treatment
consent to, 87
refusal, 113
Tremor
intention, 55
at rest, 55
Trench fever, 175
Triacylglycerols, 146
Triazolam,112
Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) eycle, 126, 127,
140,146,413
Trichomonas vaginalis, 180
Trichophyton, 170
Trichuris trichiura, 177
Tricuspid valve, Epstein-cardiae anomaly
of, 110
Tricyclic antidepressants, overdose, 307
Trigeminal nuclei, 37
Triiodothyronine (T3), 217, 232, 237, 243,
244,245,257,258
Trimethoprim, 276, 281
Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-
SMX),302
Trisomy 13, 386
Trisomy 18, 351
Trisomy 21,330
Trophoblastic tumor, 319
Tropocollagen,64,fi6
Tropomyosin, 246
Truncus arteriosus, 30
persistent, 35
Trypanosoma cruzi, 172, 182
Trypsin, 221
Tryptophan. 145. 155, 159
L-Tryptophan,95
Tsetse fly, 178
T-test, 115
T -tubule, 253
Tube feeding
nasogastric, 401
refusal, 109
Tuberculosis, 348, 370
Tuberculous meningitis, CSF abnormali-
ties, 325
lJ-Tubocurarine,288
Tubular necrosis, aeute, 392
Tumor(s). See also Cancer; Carcinoma:
specific sites
Klatskin, 358
Krukenberg, 315
Leydig cell, 334, 375
melanocytic, benign, 354
primitive neuroectodermal, 346
Sertoli cell, 220
trophoblastic, 319
Wilms, 347
yolk sae, 378
Tumor markers, 319-320
Tunica intima, 73
Turbulent hlood flow, 230-231
Turcot syndrome, 376
Turner syndrome, 322, 362, 366
cardiae anomaly, 397
Two-way ANOVA, 112
Tylosis, 311
Type I (alpha) error, 120
Type II (beta) error, 114
Tyramine, 279
MAGIs and, 91
Tyrosinase deficiency, 151
Tyr09ne, 136, 141, 155
Upper motor neurons
function, 43
lesions, 38
Upper pons lesions, cranial nerves affected,
37
Upper subscapularis branch, posterior
brachial plexus, 3
Upper subscapularis nerve, 8
Uraehus,31
patent, 33
U radl, 146, 149
Urea cycle, 136, 139
Ureaplasma urealyticum, 184
Ureteric bud, 25, 31, 32
Urethra
epithelial lining, 63
penile, 63
Urethritis, 393
Uric acid, 131
Urinary 17-0H steroids, 212
Urinary tract infections (UTls), 391
Urinary tract obstruction, 391
Urinary trigone, 22
Urine eoncentration, 215
Urodine monophosphate (UMP), 149
Urogenital folds, 24, 31, 32
Urogenital sinus, 24, 31, 32
U rophilia, 123
U ropmphyrinogen- I synthase, 135
Uropmphyrinogen-I synthetase deficiency,
141
U ropmphyrinogen- III cosynthase, 143
Uterus, ligaments, 18
Utricle, 39, 60
Uvula deviation, in left vagus nerve lesion, 5
UDP glucuronate transferase deficiency,
157
Ulcer
curling, 353
Cushing's, 358
differential diagnosis, 348
duodenal, 319, 398
gastric, 313, 398
Ulcerative eolitis, 345, 352, 358, 365, 398
Ulnar artery, 18
Ulnar groove, 22
Ulnar nerve, 8
Ultralente insulin, 277
Ultraviolet B (UVB) sunlight, 310
Umbilical arteries, 27
Umbilical vein, 27, 220
Uneonditioned response, 118
Uneonditioned stimulus, 118
Undoing, 106
Unipolar disorder, 12]
United States, cause of death, 390, 394
Unwed mothers, 96
Upper medulla lesions, cranial nerves af-
fected, 36
V wave, 211, 254
Vaccine(s)
inactivated, 165
live attenuated, 176
Neisseria meningitidRs, 178
Pneumococcus, 176
pneu11Wcoecus, 176
polio, 181
Vagina, 67
Vaginismus, 83
Vagus nerve, 5, 9, 10, 13,19,21,22,41,52
Valence, 196
Validity, test, 86
Valine, 127,363
Valproic acid, 277
Valve
abnormalities, 261-262
in rheumatic fever, 397
right-sided, 268
Vancomycin, 276. 299
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 317
Variable interval sehedule, 84
Variable ratio schedule, 85
Varicella virus, 181, 183
Varicocele, 329
Variola, 167, 173
Vascular dementia, 77, 101, 123
Vascular fluid, 218
Vasculitis, 396
syphilitic, 347
Vasodilation, sympathetic, 226-227
Vasopressin. See Antidiuretic hormone
(ADH)
Velocity, 233
and afterload, 248
and cross-sectional area, 239
maximum (V max)' 143, 155, 157,243
Vena cava, 220
Venae recta, 73
Venlafaxine,80
Venous blood volume, 224
dependent, 212
Venous pressure, dependent, 212
Venous pressure curve, 254
Venous pulse deflections, 211-212
Venous puncture, above heart, 228
Ventilation. See also Hyperventilation;
Hypoventilation
alwolar, 250
in high altitudes, 225
main central drive, 267
FC0 2 1evels and. 231
P021eveis and, 232
total, 220, 415
Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) ratio, 264
Ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) relationships,
415
Ventilator, infection in patients on, 391
Ventral anterior nucleus, 42
Ventral lateral nucleus, 42
Ventral mesentery derivatIVes, 31
Ventral posterolateral nucleus, 42
Ventral posteromedial nucleus, 42
Ventral rami, fibers, 53
Ventral root, fibers, 53
Ventricle, primitive, 30
Ventricular action potential
acetylcholine effects, 221
norepinephrine effeets, 210
phase 0 trigger, 235
phase 3 trigger, 229
phase 4 trigger, 246
phases, 252
Ventricular depolarization, 270
Ventricular end diastolic pressure, left, 222
Ventricular end diastolic voIID11e, lelt, 222
Ventricular musde membnme channels,
257
Ventricular repolarization, 211
Ventromedial hypothalamic nudeus. 49
Verbigeration, 118
Vermis
function, 48
lesion, cerebral eortex, 38
Vertebra prominens, 7
Vertebrae
spinal nerves associated \\
th, 44
thoracic, 16
Vertebral artery, 59
branches, 46
Vertebral column, primary curvatures, 9
Very long chain fart:' acids, 75
Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDU, 14.5,
151
Veside,355
Vesicular stomatitis virus, 180
Vessel length. and resistance, 248
Vessel radius, and resistance, 219, 226
Vestibulo-ocular reflex, 61
Vibrio cholera, 167
Vibrio parahaemolytiClls, 167, 170
Vibrio V1l1nificus, L 74
Vimentin, 71
Vinblastine, 289
Vincristine, 289
Vinyl chloride, cancer associated with, 328
VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide), 262
VIPoma, 336
Viral eonjunctivitis, 395
Viral meningitis, CSF abnormalities. 325
Viral pneumonia, 391
Virchow triad, 313
Viruses, 173
DNA, 180
oneogenic, 338
growth
edipse period, 165, 168
latent period, 173
naked, IB1i
RNA
naked, 168
negative sense, 181
segmented, 182
Visceral pleura, 14
Viseosity, and resistanc.'C, 257
Visual association mrtex, 47
Visual eortex. primarv. 48
Visual field, pathways and defects, 50, 51
Vital capacity (VC), 242
Vitamin(s)
and minerals, 408-410
water-soluble, 211
Vitamin A, 134, 157
Vitamin BJ (thiamine), 138, 146, 161,409,
410
Vitamin B 2 (riboflavin) deficiency, 142,408
Vitamin B3 (niacin) deficieney, 127,409
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), 151,284,409
deficiency, 156, 160,356,410
Vitamin Bn (eyanocobalamin)
absorption, 410
deficiency, 160. 161.32.5,342,409
Vitamin Bn-dependent enzymes, 159
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) deficieney, 141,
147,409
Vitamin 0, L34
deficienc:\', 157,224
production, 159
Vitamin D3 (cholecaleiferol), 210, 227
Vitamin E, 160
Vitamin K deficieney, 141
Vitamin K-dependent eoagulation factors,
133,340
ViteHine fistula, 2.5
Vitreous humor, 48
Volkmann's contracture, 22
Volume of di.tribution
and plasma eoncentration, 28.5
protein binding and. 285
Volvulus, 34.5
Von Gierke's disease. 150,321
Von Hippel-Lindau sy'lldrome, 312, 407
Von ReckJinghausen's disease, 321
Voyeurism, 123
Vulva cancer, 399
\\' aH tension, 24.5
Wallenberg's syndrome, 36
Warfarin, 288
antidote, 411
therapeutie monitoring, 300
\ \' atcr
free, clearance, 24]
total bodv. 218
fat mntent and, 266
Water deprivation test. 266
\Vater flow, solute concentration and, 270
"'aterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome. 341
Water-soluble hormones, 239, 243
Water-soluble vitamins, 2] 1
'Yaxy casts, 3/17
Weber's sy11drome, 36
\Vegener granulomatosis, 374
Weirs disease, 177
\\'ermer s)1Idrome, 323
Wernicke's aphasia, 104
'V ernicke's area, 48
Wernieke's encephalopathy, 39
Western blot, 139. 161. 205. 333
Whipworms, 177
White blood ceH casts. in urine. 387
\Vhite blood ceHs, in urine, 387
White musde, 214
White pulp of spleen, 67
\-\lrite rami, 7, 40
\Vilms tID11or, 347
Wilson's disease, 9.5, 385
Winged scapula, 21
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, 191,369,373
Withholding of information, 82
Withholding of treatment, 96
Wobble hypothesis, 127
''''omen. See Females
Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia, 352
Waldeyer's ring, 14
Voolsorter's disease, 169
Word salad, .54
Wrist, bon\' artieulations, 1]
Xanthine oxidase, 158
Xenograft. 202
Xeroden11a pigmentosum, 128
Xiphoid process, 20
X-linked dominant transmission, HiO
X-linked recessive transmission, 141,
143
Y gene, 152
YeHow fever, 169, 187
YeHow pigmentation, baeteria associated
with, 179
Yersinia pestis, 172
Yohimbine, 30]
Yolk sac, 25
Yolk sae tumor, 378
Z gene, 152
Zafirlukast. 307
Zaleplon, 2/16
Zanamivir, 287
Zero correlation, 83
Zero-order elimination, 295
Zero-order proc't'sses, 304
Zileuton, 300
Zinc (Zn) deficiency, 40H
ZoHinger-EHison s)11drome, 366
Zolpidem, 286
Zona pellucida, 34
Zonula adherens, 71
Zonula oedudens, 64, 7]
Zoophilia, 123
Zy'gote, division, 25
musand